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by the apparition of Our Lord, he died at the age of thirty-six years, on 13 June, 1231. He had lived fifteen years with liis parents, ten years as a Canon Regular of St. .Vugustine, and eleven years in the Order of Friars .Minor.

linniediiitely after liis death he appeared at Ver- celH to the .Vbbot, Tliomas Gallo, and his death was also announectl to the citizens of Padua by a troop of children, crying: "The holy Father is dead; St. Anthony is dead!" Gregory IX, firmly persuaded of his sanctity by the numerous miracles he had wrought, inscribed him within a year of his death (Pentecost, 30 May, 1232), in the calendar of saints of the Cathedral of Spoleto. In the Bull of canoni- zation he declared lie had personally known the saint, and we know that the same pontiff, having heard one of his sermons at Rome, and astonished at his profound knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, called him: ".-Vrk of the Covenant". That this title is well-founded is also shown by his several works: " Expositio in Psalmos", written at Mont- pellier, 1224; the "Serraones de tempore", and the "Sermoncs de Sanctis", written at Padua, 1229-30. The name of Anthony became celebrated throughout the world, and with it the name of Padua. The inhabitants of that city erected to his memory a magnificent temple, whither his precious relics were transferreil in 1263, in presence of St. Bonaventure, Minister General at the time. When the vault in which for thirty years his sacred body had reposed was opened, the flesh was found reduced to dust, but the tongue uninjured, fresh, and of a lively red colour. St. Bonaventure, beholding this wonder, took the tongue affectionately in his hands and kissed it, exclaiming: "O Blessed Tongue that always praised the Lord, and made others bless Him, now it is evident what great merit thou hast before God." The fame of St. Anthony's miracles has never diminished, and even at the present day he is acknowledged as the greatest thaumaturgist of the times. He is especially invoked for the recovery of things lost, as is also expressed in the celebrated responsory of Friar Julian of Spires:

Si qua>ris miracula . . .

. . . resque perditas.

Indeed his very popularity has to a certain extent obscured his personality. If we may believe the conclusions of recent critics, some of the Saint's biographers, in order to meet the ever-increasing demand for the marvellous displayed by his devout clients, and comparatively oblivious of the historical features of his life, have devoted themselves to the task of handing down to posterity the posthumous miracles wrought by his intercession. We need not be surprised, therefore, to find accounts of his miracles that may seem to the modern mind trivial or incredi- ble occupying so large a space in the earlier biogra- phies of St. Anthony. It may be true that some of the miracles attributed to St. Anthony are legendary, but others come to us on such high authority that it is impossible either to eliminate them or explain them away o jyriori without doing violence to the facts of history.

Tlic principal historical sources for the life of St. Anthony of Pailua arc the following: In the XIII Centdry: — Kehvai, (e.l.i. l.e(,,rulii I'rima Beu Vita Antuiuiasima (Paris, 1904); Legemla Hrcufuia scu vita auctore anonj/7no vatde antiqtio in Acta SS. Ill, I.J June; Alenton (ed.), Thomas of Cei.ano, Vita prima ,S'. Franciaci (Rome, 1906); Lemmens (ed.). DuUogua de vita aanctorum /•'/<'. Minorum (Rome. 1902); Alenvon (ed.), Uahthoi.omew of Tkent, Liber epilogorum in geata ISanctorum, HI MitcrUanea Anloniami (Rome, 1902); Roland of Padua, De jactia in Miirrhia Tarriaina, ed. MuRAToni in Her. Italic .Scnpl au\un, 1757), VIII; Thomas of Ecti-ebton, De advenlu fral. Atmorum in Angliam, in Analecta Franciac. diuaracchi, ISK.'i). I; Salimuene of Parma, Chronica (Parma, 1857); RioAULn, Vita H. Antanii, (ed.), (Bordraux, 1899); JoBA (ed.), Legenda Itiiimumlina (Hologna, 188.)); Lemmens (eil.). I^gmda Florenlina in Rumitchc Quartalachri/t (Rome, 1902). ^

In the XIV CENTonr:— Kebval (ed.), Lcgenda " lienigni-

taa " (Paris, 1904); Ailditions dea manuacrita h hi Icanxda prima in Sti. Antonii de Padiu'i vitw 8U(e, etc. (Paris. 1904); Liber miraculorum, in Anatect. Franc. (CJuaracchi, 1S97). Ill; Bar- THOLOMEO DA PisA. Liber conformitatum, in Aii'dtrln. Franc. (Quaracchi, 1906), IV'; Paulinus da Venezia,,on (ed.), S. Antonii vita compendiata in MiaceUanea Antoniana (Rome, 1902); Sabatier (ed.), Actus beati Frtmciaci (Paris, 1902). For the works of the following centuries, cf. Chevalier, Repertoire dea sources historiques du moyen dge (Paris, 1S77-86). The most exact biographical works of our time are: Lempp, Antonius von Padua in Zeitachrift fiir Kirchengeaehichle (Gotha, 1889-92), XI, XII, XIII; Lepitre, St. Antoine de Padoue (Pari.s 1901) tr. Guest (London, 1902); La voii de St. Antoine (Paris. 1900-03); Problhnfa antoniena; Palatini, .S. Antonii di Padova dalla atoria alia leggenda (Reggio di Calabria, 1904); ScRlNzl. S. Antonio di Padova e it auo tempo (Vincenza, 1906); Halva(;nini. S. Antonio di Padora e i siwi tempi (Turin, 1895); Kerval, S. Antonii de Padua vitte sua' (Paris, 1904); L' H:oluiion et le developpement du merveitleiLr dans les Ugendea de S. Antoine de Padoue (Paris, 1906); La voce di S. Antonio di Roma, St. Antonio di Padova secondo documenti del aecolo XIII e XIV, 1905-06; Dal-Gal, 5. Antonio di Padova, taumaturgo Franccscano, studio dei, documenti (Quaracchi, 1906); Regauld, Vita S. Antonii, tr. Guest (London, 1904); Coleridge (ed.). The Chronicle of SI. Anthony (London, 1883); Marianus, St. Anthony of Padua (London. 1898); Ward, St. Anthony, the Saint of the Whole World (New York, 1898); Stoddard, T/k Wonder Worker of Padua (Notre Dame, Ind., 1896).

NicoL.\us Dal-Gal.

Anthony of Sienna, a Dominican theologian, so called because of his great veneration for St. Catha- rine of Sienna, b. near Braga in Portugal, hence sometimes know'n as "Lusitanus"; d. at Nantes, 2 January, 1585. He studied at Lisbon, Coimbra, and Louvain, taught philosophy for several years in the latter place, where he was made Doctor of Theology in 1571, and put in charge of the Dominican college there in 1574. He supported the Portuguese pretender Antonio da Beja, and was banished from the Spanish dominions, after which he tra\'elled for scientific purposes in Italy, England, and France. He was one of the collaborators in the Roman edition of St. Thomas's works (1570-71) prepared by order of St. Pius V. He published (Antwerp, 1569) an edition of the "Summa Theologica" with exact indi- cation of all authors, sacred and profane, quoted by the Saint, and (ib., 1571) a similar edition of the "Qua?stiones Disputatse" and other "opuscula" of St. Thomas. The commentary on Genesis, edited by him two years later at Antwerp as a work of St. Thomas, is not authentic. His edition of the Saint's commentary on Machabees, prepared at Paris in 1584, was published in 1612 by Come Mo- relles, O.P., in the Antwerp edition of the works of St. Thomas. He also brought out (Paris, 1585) a "Chronicon" and "Bibliotheca Ordinis Prisdica- turum ".

QufeTiF-EcHARD, SS. O.P., I, 271; Mandonnet in Diet, de Thiol. Cath. I, 1447.

Thomas J. Shahan.

Anthony of the Mother of God (A. de Olivera), a Spanish Carmelite, b. at Leon in Old-Cjistile; d. 1(341. He taught Aristotle's dialectics and natural philosophy at the University of Alcala de Ilenares (Complutum). With the collaboration of his col- leagues, he undertook an encyclopa'dia intended for students in arts and philo.sopliy. This work, origi- nally styled "Collegium Complutense philosophicum" (Alcala, 1624; other editions Fninkfurt, l(i2il; Lyons, 1637, 1651, 16(iS), w:is highly esteemed by Tlioiiiists. It was at first a tre:itise on logic; but in the course of time, metaphysics and moral philosophy were added, and the work served as an introduction to the great "Course of Theology" of the Salmanticenses. The first three volumes of this "Course" are also attributed to Anthony.

Toussaint, in Diet. Thiol. Cath., s. v.; Hurter, Nomtncta- tor I, 376.

John J. a' Becket.

Anthropology. See

Anthropomorphism, .^nthuopomorphites. (S,v- fipwTTot. m;ui, ;uicl MOPE'S, form), a term used in its widest sense to signify the tendency of man to conceive the