Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/643

This page needs to be proofread.
577

ANTIPHONARY


577


ANTIPHONARY


more restricted meaning. In its present meaning it haa also been variously and insufficiently defined as a "Collection of antiphons in the notation of Plain Chant", and as a liturgical bool{ containing the antiplions "and otlicr chants". In its present complete form it contains, in plain-cliant notation, the music of all the sung portions of the Roman Breviary immediately placed witli the te.xts, with the indications of the inarmer of singing such por- tions as have a common melody (such as versicles and responses, the Psalms, the Lessons, the Chap- ters). But the Lessons of .Matins (I'irst Nocturn) in the triduum of Holy Week, styled " Lamentations", have a melody proper to tliemsclves, which is not therefore merely indicated but is placed immediately with the texts of the Lessons. The most recent official edition of the Roman antiplionary is that known generally as the " Ratisbon edition", and commendetl for use in all the churches of the Catholic world by Pius IX and Leo XIII. Its title is: " Antiphonariura et Psaltcrium juxta ordi- nem Breviarii Romani cum cantu sub auspieiis Pii IX et Leonis XIII Pont. Max. rcformato. Cura et auctoritate S. Rituum Congregationis digestum Roma;", (.\ntiplionary and Psaltery according to the order of the Roman Breviary, with the chant as reformed under the auspices of Popes Pius IX and Leo XIII. .Vrranged at Rome under the super- vision of the Sacred Congregation of Rites.) The first of tlie.se volumes to be issued was that entitled: "Tomus II. continens Horas Diurnas Bre\"iarii Romani (Vesperale)", and contained the antiphons, psalms, hymns, and versicles of the Canonical Hours styled Harm Diurrur, i. e. Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, Compline. It com- prised in one volume what in some editions had been distributed in several, such as the " .\ntiphonarium" (in a very restricted sense), the "Psalterium", the "Hynmarium", the "Responsoriale". The Office of Matins was di\nded into the other two volumes, one of which contained the invitatories, antiphons, hymns, etc., of Matins for the Proprium dc Tempore (Proper of the Season), and the other, for the Com- mune Sanctorum (Common Office of the Saints) and the Proprium Sanctorum (Proper Office of the Saints). A brief study of the divisions and arrange- ment of the Marquess of Bute's translation into English of the Roman Breviary will make clear from the above description the general character of a complete Roman antinhonary. It is proper to adtl here that this Rati.sDon edition has lost its autlicntic and official character by virtue of the "Motu proprio" (22 November, 1903), and the Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites (8 Jan- uary, 1904). A new edition of the liturgical books is in preparation, of which the first volume issued is the "Kyriale". The volumes of the Ratisbon etlition are widely used in Germany, Ireland, and America. They may still be used, as it probably will be some years before the complete Vatican edition (as it is called) appears. The change from the Ratisbon to the Vatican edition is, however, to be made gradually but rapidly. While the former edition was "commended for use, the latter is "commanded" for use. Into the various rea.sons for the rejection by Pope Pius X of the Ratisbon edition and the neces.sary substitution therefor of the Vatican edition, this is not the place to enter. It is sufficient and appropriate to say that both the texts and the melodies are to be revused in order to bring them into conformity with the results of recent palaxjgraphic studies in Gregorian chant.

In order to show as dearly as possible the exact po- sition of the antiphonarj' (as the word is now used) amongst the liturgical books, it is proper to recall that the Roman Missal contains all the texts used at Mass; the Roman Breviary, all the texts used in


the Divine Office, or Canonical Hours. While in the Missal, however, the introits, graduals, tracts, sequences, offertories, communions, as well as the texts of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedic- tus, and .\gnus Dei are both read by the celebrant and sung by the choir, their notation is not given; only the accentus, or chants, of the celebrant and deacon Iwive the music furnished (such as the into- nations of the Gloria, the Credo, the chants of the various Prefaces, the two forms of the Pater Noster, the various forms of the Ite, or Benedicamus, the Bles.sing of the Font, etc.). The omitted chants (styled concentus), which are to be sung by the choir, are contained in a supplementary volume called the "Graduale" or "Liber Gradualis" (anciently the "Gradale"). In like manner, the Roman Brev- iary, all of which, practically, is meant for singing in c/i«ro, contains no music; and the " Antiphonarium " performs for it a .serWce .similar to that of the " Liber Gradualis" for the Missal. Just as the "Liber Gradualis" and the " .-Vntiphonariura" are, for the .sake of convenience, separated from the Missal and Breviary re.siicctively, .so, for the same reason, still further subdivisions have been made of each. Into those of the "Graduale" we need not enter. The " .\ntiplionarium " has been issued in a com- pendious form "for the large number of churches in which the Canonical Hours of the Divine Office are sung only on Sundays and Festivals". This "Antiphonarium Romanum compendiose redactum ex editionibus typicis" etc., includes, however, the chants for the Ma.s,ses of Christmas, the triduum of Holy Week, ami other desired Offices, and is issued in a single volume, .\nother .separate volume is the "Vesperal", which contains also the Office of Compline; and of the " Ve.speral" a further com- pendium has been issued, entitled "Kpitome e.x Vesperali Romano". All the above volumes are in the Ratisbon edition. Associated somewhat in sco|x; with the " -Vntiphonarium " is the " Direclorium Chori", which has been described as furnishing the ground plan for the antiplionary, inasmuch as it gives or indicates all the music of the chants (except the respon.sories after the Lessons), the tones of the ps;dms, the brief responsories, the " Venite Exsul- temus", the "Te Deum", Litanies, etc. The text of all the psalms, the full melody of the hymns, and the new feasts were added to the "official edi- tion" of the " Directorium" in 1888.

The worti Antiphonary does not therefore clearly describe the contents of the volume or volumes thus entitled, in which are found many chants other than the antiphon (technically so calletl), such as hymns, res|X)nsories, versicles, and responses, psalms, the "Te Deum", the "Venite Adoremus", and .so forth. The expression "antiphonal chant" would, however, comprise all these different kinds of texts and chants, since they are so constructed as to be sung alternately by the two divisions of the liturgical choir; and in this sen.se the word Antipho- nary woulil be sufficiently inclusive in its implication. On the other hand, the corresponding volume for the chants of the M.-uss, namely the "Graduale", or "Liber Graduahs", includes many other kinds of liturgical texts and chants in addition to the graduals, such as introits, tracts, sequences, offer- tories, communions, as well as the fixed texts of the "Ordinarium Missa;", or "Kyriale". It may be said, then, that these two books receive the names "Antiphonarium" and "Graduale" from the tech- nical name of the most important chants inchuled in them. Fundamentally all the chants, whether of the Ma-ss or of the Divine Office, are sung antiph- onally, and might, with etymological propriety, be comprised in the one general musical title of " .\ntiphonary".

The plain-chant melodies found in the Roman