Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/647

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oentury monastic antiphonary found in the library of the Chapter of Lucta, whicli, now in course of publication, illustrates the duidonian notation that everywhere replaccil, save in the school of St. Gall, the ambiguous method of writing the neums in campo ti})i'rto. as well as the propo.sed publication in facsimile by the ISciiciliilines of .Stanbrook, of the thirteentli-ceutury Worcester antiphonary (.-l/i- tiphonalr Munasliriim IViyornicnxc) it is not necessary to speak in detail. This appeal to early traililion has resulted in the action of Pius X which has taken away its official .s.anction from the Ratisbon edition. The Ratisbon "Graduale", founiled on the Medicean (which gave the chants as abbreviated and changed by .\nerio and Suriano), and the " .\ntiphonariuin" (which was<l on the Antiphonale of Venice, 1585, with the respon.sories of Matins ba.sed on the Antwerp edition of 1611), will be replaced by the chants as found in the older codices.

That thew'ord antiphonarium is, orwas,cjuiteela.stic in its appHcation, is shown by the iiitenstuig remark of Amalarius in his "Liber de online .Viitiphonarii", written in the first half of the ninth centurj'. The work which in Metz was called " Antiphonarius" was di\'ided into three in Rome: " What we call 'Gradale' they style 'Cantatorius'; and this, in ac- cordance with their ancient custom, is still bound in a single volume in some of their churches. The remainder they divide into two parts: the one con- taining the responsories is called 'Respon.soriale', while the other, containing antiphons, is called 'Antiphonarius'. I have followed our custom, and have placed together (mUtim) the responsories and the antiphons according to the order of the sea- sons In whicn our feasts are celebratetl" (P. L., CV, 1245). The word "cantatory" explains itself as a volume containing chants; it was also called "Gradale", the chanter stood on a step (gradus) of the ambo, or pulpit, while singing the response after the Epistle. Other ancient names for the antiphonary seem to have been " Liber Officialis" (Office Book) and "Capitulare" (a term sometimes used for the book containing the Epistles and Go.spels). The changes in the antiphonary resulting from the reform of the Hreviary ordered by the Council of Trent and carried out under Pius V will be appropriately treated under "Breviary". Finally, it should be noted that the term anti- phonarium, printed as a title to many volumes, 18 made to cover a very varied selection from the complete antiphonary. Sometimes it means prac- tically a "Vesperale" (sometimes with Tcrce added; sometimes with various proces.sional chants anil blessings taken from the " Processionale " and "Rituale"). volumes meet the local usages in certain tlioceses with respect to Church services, and offer a practical manual for the worshipper, excluding portions of the Divine Office not sung in choir in some places and including those portions which are sung. (See also names of Antiphonaries, as .\u.M.\oH, B.vNOOH, etc.)

Much spare wouM be requireti for even a partially satis- factory hil)lioKraphy, which should comprise pome notice of the publicution of froRnientarv and of complete source.** (aniiphoimriet of the and of the Divine Office), the commeiitarios upon them, the discu,'«i»ions raised concerning them, and the present-day activity in photot>-pic reproduc- tion. The following brief list may prove ser\'iceable. partly because of its indications of fuller bibliographic information, partly because of the comparatively easy accessibility of the works mentionefl: (1) CVtmplete works of Tommasi (Thoma- sitis). ed. Vkzzosi (Itomc, 1740). IV, V. with publishe.1 texts, editorial prefaces and notes, and excellent index at enfl of Vol. VII: (J) ZArcARlA. liibUnthrcn Riluali, (Rome. 1770). I. 29 (,\nt. of Moss). Uil (Ant. of Office), with many referencea. (3) MioNK. /*. L., with publishc<l texts. e<hlorial prefaces, and notes. I-XXVIII, ti:i7-8.iO: CIV, 320-.M(); CV, 1243-1311;; CLXXXII, 1121-32; LXXII, 57»-(K)«. (4) IIotiiam in Dirt, of Christ. Anliq, with conrlense*! presentation of the general character of an Ant. of and an .\nt. of the Office. (5) Frere, The Sftrum (Jrttduat orul the Orftjorian AntiphomUe Mittarum, an excellent dissertation extracted from the L— 37

OraduaU SarUburiente published for the Plainsong and Medieval Music .Society (London, 1895), 101 quarto pages, with historical index and four facsimiles, (li) The magniticent series of the faUugraphie Mugicale, published (luarterly (^in (luarto) for the last eighteen years under the direction of its founder, Dom Mocquereau, provuled with phototypic reprofiuc- tions of complete antiphonaries with elabomtc prefaces partly liturgical and partly musical in character (I and VII are out of print). It contains also the Aiiibrosian An- tiphonary (V, VI) of the Hritish Museum (Codex Aildit.. 34,209) in plain-song stiuare notation, with most extensive commentary. In ail<lition to the complete sources repro- liuceti, the Palt'oy. Mua. contains also many illustrations of fragmentary character, as examples of the various notations an»T signs and letters used in the evolution of the plain-chant notation. (7) The Introduction Gi-ntrale of the J'uUog. Mus., 1, 1.3-17, contains a partial list of publications (Noua n'muna nullement la pretention d'etre compteL la Hate aerait intermiu' able . . .) from about the midille of the nineteenth century down to the year 1889. with facsimiles; and (8. 9) a brief list of works published with ancient notation illustrated, from 1708 to 1807. (8) .SOU1.1.1ER, /.€ plain chant, huil„ire el thlorie (Tournai, 1894), vi, ix, xvi, xviii, xix. (9) Wagner, tr. Hour, Oriffine el dt-veloppement du chant liturffique juwiu'ii la fin du moyen doe (Tournai. 1904), with history of the musical evolu- tion of Mass and Office, u chapter on the Gregorian contro- versy, etc., and a Supplement containing a tabulated state- ment of Lea textea de l' Antiphonarium A/mso-, 313-338. (10) l.EcLElicg in Diet, darch. chrH. (I'aris, 1905), ». v. ylntipAo- naire and AntiphoTUile dii gregorien followed by extensive bibliography.

H. T. Henry.

Antiphonary, Gregorhn. — It is no longer possi- ble to reconstruct completely a primitive Christian antiphonarj'; by a careful study of the text, how- ever, we can establish the fact of its existence at a remote date. The extant historical texts permit us to infer that there have been, from the very earliest Christian times, groups antl .series of groups of anti- phons. The original collection of melodies, how- ever, grew up rather as the result of changes and combinations than of additions in the strict sense. A first and very ancient distinction .seems to be that tirawn between "idiomelodic" antiphon, or those fitted with special melodies, and "automelodic" anthems, ailapted, by means of certain variations, to a common type of melody more or less frequently recurrent in tne collection.

The fist of melodies was, therefore, limited; indeed, at the early period in question, oral tradition may well have sulliced to hand down a certain number of musical formulas. When, later on, the eccle- siastical chants had been co-ordinated, it was found necessary to provide them with a notation. We leant, from several texts, that from the fourth cen- tury onward the singers commonly u.sed either a book or a page bearing the notation of the liturgical passage which they were to sing; in many churches, liowever, about that time they had only the words before them, without the melody. The oldest trace of this discipline is to be found in an Egyptian papyrus belonging to the collection of the .\reh- duKe Rainier. It is ten inches wide by four inches long (2G cm. x 11 cm.); the hamlwriting points to about the year 300. On examination, the papyrus proves to have been long in, the fingers of the singers having made holes where thev held it. There is no great difficulty in reading it; the language used is the common Greek. We give the restored text and the translation:

' f(vin)9(U iv Bt)SXe#;i Kal dcOTpo^fls iv Nofap^T, (taT0()t7)<ras Iv tj raXiXoI?, etSofUv arttuiov ii uvpavov. (t<^) Aaripoi ipav^teros, irot^ws dypavXoOvTf^ ^Oavnaaav. (oi)) yopi'W((T6t^et (\f)oV 66io t:.j llarpl, aWriXouia' 5i{a Tiji Ticji Koi Ti() ayii^i llnviiaTi. a\Xr;Xoi/ia, oXXTjXot/ia, aXX7;Xoi)ia

Tii^i i. "EitXf/tTis 6 4710s 'Iwdfre! i /3o7rTi<rri)5 i KtipHat lurivoiav iv &\if ry K6aiuf (it i<peaiv tCiv duapriuv iip.u>v.

— "He who was born in Bethlehem, who was reared at Nazareth, and who liveil in Galilee. We beheld a portent out of heaven. The shepherds who kept watch wondered at sight of the star, railing on their knees, they said: Glory be to The Kather,