ot the reforms inaugurated by Bl. John Dominic. In 1414 he was vicar of the convent of FoHgno, tlien in turn sub-prior and prior of the convent of Cortona, and later prior of the convents of Rome (Minerva), Naples (Saint Peter Martyr), Gaeta, Sienna, and Fiesole (several times). From 1433 to 1446 he was vicar of the Tuscan Congregation formed by Bl. John Dominic of convents embracing a more rig- orous disciphne. During this period he established (1436) the famous convent of St. Mark in Florence, where lie formed a remarkable community from the brethren of the convent of Fiesole. It was at this time also that lie built, with the munificent aid of Cosimo de'Medici, the adjoining church, at the consecration of which Pope Eugene IV assisted (Epiphany, 1441). As a theologian he took part in the Council of Florence (1439) and gave hospitality in St. Mark's to the Dominican theologians called to the council by Eugene IV.
Despite all the efforts of St. Antoninus to escape ecclesiastical dignities, he was forced by Eugene IV, who had personal knowledge of his saintly cliaracter and administrative ability, to accept the Arclibishop- ric of Florence. He was con.secrafed in the convent of Fiesole, 13 March. 1446, and immediately took possession of the see over which he ruled until his death. As he had laboured in the past for the up- building of the religious life throughout his Order, so he lienceforth laboured for it in his diocese, de- voting himself to the visitation of parislies and religious communities, the remedy of abuses, the strengthening of discipline, the preaching of the Gos- pel, the amelioration of the condition of the poor, and tile writing of books for clergy and laity. These labours were interrupted several times that he might act as ambassador for the Florentine Repub- hc. Ill health prevented him from taking part in an embassy to the emperor in 1451, but in 1455 and again in 1458 he was at the head ot embassies sent by the government to the Supreme Pontiff. He was called by Eugene IV to assist him in liis dying liours. He was frequently consulted by Nicholas V on questions of Church and State, and was charged by Pius II to undertake, with several cardinals, the reform of the Roman Court. When his death occurred, 2 May, 1459, Pius II gave in- structions for the funeral, and presided at it eight days later. He was canonized by Adrian VI, 31 May, 1523.
The literary productions of St. Antoninus, while giving evidence of the eminently practical turn of his mind, show that he was a profound student of history and theology. His principal work is the "Summa Theologica Moralis, partibus IV distincta", written shortly before his death, which marked a new and very considerable development in moral theology. It also contains a fund of matter for the student of the history of the fifteenth century. So well developed are its juridical elements that it ha.s been published under the title of "Juris Ponti- ficii et C^esarei Summa". An attempt was lately made by Crohns (Die Summa tlieologica des An- tonin von Florenz und die Schatzung des Weibes im Hexenhammer, Holsingfors, 1903) to trace the fundamental principles of misogyny, so manifest in the " Witchiiammer" of the German Inquisitors, to this work of Antoninus. But Paulus (Die Verachtung dor Frau beim hi. Antonin, in His- ton.scli-Pohtisclie Blatter, 1904, pp. 812-8.30) has shown more clearly than several others, especially Hi ,""" writers, that this hypothesis is unten- able, because based on a reading of only a part of the "Summa" of Antoninus. Within fifty years after the first appearance of the work (Venice, 1477), fifteen editions were printed at Venice, Spires, Nuremberg, Strasburg, Lyons, and Ba-sle. Otlier editions appeared in the following ccnturv. In
1740 it was published at Verona in 4 folio volumes edited by P. Ballerini; and in 1741, at Florence by Mamaclii and Remedelli, O.P.
Of considerable importance are the manuals for confessors and penitents containing abridgments, reproductions, and translations from the " Summa " and frequently published in the fifteenth and six- teentli centuries under the name of St. Antoninus. An unsuccessful attempt has been made to sliow that he was not the author of the Italian editions. .\t the most it should be granted that he committed to others the task of editing one or two. "fhe various editions and titles of the manuals have caused con- fusion, and made it appear that there were more than four distinct works. A careful distinction and classification is given by Mandonnet in the " Dictionnaire de thdologie catholique". Of value as throwing light upon the home life of his time are his treatises on Christian life written for women of the Medici family and first published in the last century under the titles: — (1) "Opera a ben vivere . . . Con altri ammaestramenti ", ed. Father Palermo, one vol. (Florence, 1858) (2) "Regola di vita cristi- ana", one vol. (Florence, 1866). His letters (Leltere) were collected and edited, some for the first time by Tommaso Corsetto, O.P., and published in one volume, at Florence, 1859.
Under the title, "Chronicon partibus tribus dis- tincta ab initio munch ad MCCCLIX' ' (published also under the titles "Chronicorum opus" and " His- toriarum opus"), he wrote a general history of the world with the purpose of presenting to his readers a view of the workings of divine providence. While he did not give way to his imagination or colour facts, he often fell into the error, so common among the chroniclers of his period, of accepting much that sound historical criticism has since rejected as untrue or doubtful. But this can be said only of those parts in which he treated of early history. When writing of the events and politics of his own age he exorcised a judgment that has been of the greatest value to later historians. The history was published at Venice, 1474-79, in four volumes of his "Opera Omnia" (Venice, 1480; Nuremberg, 1484; Basle, 1491; Lyons, 1517, 1527, 1585, 1586, 1587). A work on preacliing (De arte et vero modo prsedicandi) ran through four editions at the close of the fifteenth century. The volume of sermons (Opus quadragesimalium et de Sanctis sermonum, sive flos floruiii) is the work of another, although published under the name of St. Antoninus.
Unedited chronicle.s of the convents of St. Mark, Florence, and St. Dominic, Fiesole; Quktif and Echard, 55. Ord. Praed.; TouRON, Histoire des hommes illustres de I'ordre de S. Dominiqiie; Maccarani, Vita di S. Antonino (Florence, 1708); Bartoli, IstorUi delV arnvescovo S. AnConino e de suoi piu iUustri discepoli (Florence, 1782); MoRO, Di S. An- tonino in relatione alia riforma cattolica nel sec. XV (Florence. 1899): ScHAUBE, Die Qiwllen der Weltchronik des heiliffen An- toninus (Hirschberg, 1880).
A. L. McM.vHox.
Antoninus Pius (Titus ^Elius H.\dri.\nus Antoninus Pius), Roman Emperor (138-161), b. 18 September, A. D. 86, at Lanuvium, a -short distance from Rome; d. at Lorium, 7 March, 161. Much of his youth was spent at Lorium, which was only twelve miles from Rome. Later on lie built a villa there, to which he would frequently retreat from the cares of the empire, and in which he died, in his seyenty-fifth year. Ilis early career was that usually followed by the sons of senatorial families. He entered public life while quite young and after ex- ercising the office of pra^tor, became consul in 120, at the age of thirty-four. Shortly after the expiration of his consulate he was selected by Hadrian as one of the four men of consular rank whom he placed over the four judicial districts into which Italy was then divided. The duration of this office and its character cannot be decided with accuracy. .-Vu