fragan of Turin, und comprising 73 towns in the prov- ince of Turin Althougli St. Ursus is sometimes said to have been tlic first bishop, this is greatly contro- verted. The first known, certainly, as such was St. Eustasius, whose name coupled with Aosta is signed to a letter sent to Leo I by the second Synod of Milan (451). [F. Savio, S. J. Gli Antichi Vescovi d' Italia (Piemonte), Turin, 1899, 69-108.] From the ninth century the list of bishops is fairly complete. Suppres.sed in 1802 it was re-established in 1817. Aosta has 82,000 Catholics; 87 parishes, 188 secular priests, 24 regulars, 55 seminarists, 566 churches, chapels, or oratories. In the cathedral treasury is a diptych of Anicius Probus, Roman consul in 406, which shows the Emperor Honorius conquering the hordes of Alaric. It was discovered in 1833. St. .■Vnselm (1033-1109), Archbishop of Canterbury, was a native of Aosta. St. Bernard de Mentlion (1008), Archdeacon of Aosta, founded the hospice on the Alps named after him, as a relief to pilgrims in the passage of the Alps.
Battandier, Ann. Cath. Pont., 1906.
John J. a' Becket.
Apaches, a tribe of North American Indians be- longing linguistically to the Athapascan stock whose original habitat is believed to have been North- western Canada. The family spread southwards to California and thence diffused itself over Texas, New Jlexico, and Arizona. Onate, in 1598, is the first writer to mention Apaches by this name. The Apaclies, from their first appearance in history, have been noted for their ferocity and restlessness. Op- posed to fixed abode.s, they have ever been a terror to the more peaceably inclined red men.
The history of Catholic missionary effort among the Apaches is a sad one. We find Franciscans at work among them as early as 1629, when Father Benavides founded Santa Clara de Capo on the borders of the Apache country in New Mexico. Yet, though an Apache chief, Sanaba, had been converted to the Faith, we hear of the tribe itself only as a despoiler of the Christian Pueblo Indians. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Jesuit missionaries of Upper California also came in con- tact with the Apaches. The latter frequently harassed the reservations near the Arizona frontier with a ferocity which gained for them the appella- tion of the Iroquois of the West. As a means of protecting their converts, the Jesuits attempted to convert the savage Apaches, and the celebrated Father Kino (Kuehn), cosmographer and missioner, undertook the task. He made such a favourable impression on them that they invited him to dwell among them, but his death shortly after frustrated the design, and we hear no more of Jesuit missions to the tribe. In 1733, Father Aponte y Lis, a Fran- ciscan labouring on the Texan mission, devoted his best efforts to winning over the Apaches. He per- suaded the Spanish Viceroy to lend material assist- ance, and finally, in 1757, San Saba and San Luis de Amarillas were established; but the nomadic Apaches refused to settle on reservations, dosiiite the ellorts of Fathers Terreros, Santiestelian, Molina, and other Franciscans. Moreover, the neighbouring Indians resented the attempt to domesticate the Apaches near their homes, and murdered several of the fathers. Another mission, San Lorenzo on the Rio Josd, founded in 1761, was maintained for a few years by I'atlicrs Ximcnes and Bafios. Out of some 3,(XXJ Apaches they induced about 400 to settle at the mission, and bajilizcd 80 persons in danger of death. Hones of la,sling results were now enter- tained, as the Apaches allowed their children to be instructed and their sick to be visited, but the Comanches destroyed the .settlement in 1769. Wo read of no more organized work among the Apaches. Soon after the United States Government had ac-
quired the southwestern territories, it came into collision with the restless Apaches, and a relentless state of war with the tribe has existed practically down to the present day. In 1870 the .Apaches of Arizona were visited by the Rev. A. Jouvenceau, a secular priest, but he found no Christians among them. A few Jicarilla Apaches, living dispersed among the New Mexican settlements,"have been baptized, but as a tribe the Apaches have never been Christianized. Catholic missionaries and Indian agents agree in describing them at the present day as the most savage, degraded, and immoral of all our North American Indians. Their number is estimated at 5,200, of whom 300 have been removed to Oklahoma.
Shea, Cath. Church in Colonial Days (New York, 188G); Idem., Hist, of Cath. Missions among the Indians (New York, 1855); Clinch, California and its Missions (San Francisco, 1904).
William H. W. Fanning.
Apameia, a titular metropolitan see of Syria, in the valley of the Orontes, whose episcopal list dates from the first century (Gams, 446, 451). It was still a flourishing place in the time of the Crusades, and was known to the Arabs as Famieh. Vast ruins of a very ornamental character abound in the vicinity. For another Apameia (in Phrygia) known as Apameia Cibotos (the Ark) see "Bulletin Critique" (Paris, 1890), XI, 296-297. There was still another see of the same name in Bithynia, whose episcopal list is known since the fourth century (Gams, 443).
Legendhe in Vigouroux, Diet, de la Bible (1891), s. v.; De Vogue, La Syrie centrale: Architecture civile et reliffUuse (Paris. 1866-67); Butler, Architecture etc., in Northern Cen- tral Syria (New York, 1903), passim.
Aparisi y Guijarro, Antonio, parliamentary orator, jurisconsult, Catholic controversialist, and Spanish litterateur, b. in Valencia, 28 Mar., 1815; d. in Madrid, 5 Nov., 1872. He was extremely gifted; of extensive knowledge, brilliant imagination, graceful and beautiful power of expression, and exquisite literary taste. As a man, he was modest kind-hearted, and most charitable, a fervent Catholic and an ardent patriot. In 1839 he was admitted to the bar, and defended many criminal cases, winning them in almost every instance. He published poems and articles in the monthly periodical, "El Liceo Valenciano" (1841—42), in "La Restauracion", a Catholic review of Valencia (1843-44), and was editor of the newspaper, " El pensamiento de Valen- cia" (1857-58). He contributed to "La Esperanza", "La Estrella", and particularly to "La Regenera- cion" (Nov., 1862, to Nov., 1872), Catholic news- papers of Madrid, being editor of the last-named at different times, and collaborator in the publication of the review "La Concordia" (1863-64).
He was sent as representative from Valencia to the Cortes (1858-65), where, as leader of the royalists in the House of Representatives, he delivered many eloquent discourses against the disont.Tilment laws, in defence of Catholic union, in reprobation of des- poihng the Pope of his temjxiral power, and on other vital questions touching the Church and Spain. In Paris, in lS(j9, lie attempted to unite the royal families of I.sabel II and Cliarles of Bourbon, and for dynastic reasons also went to Paris and London in 1S()9-7I). and took part in the Carlist conference in Switzerland in April, 1870. He took the initiative in the fornia- tion in Paris of a Central Congress of the Carlist party. In 1860 he wrote the treati.se " El Paiia y iN:i]>oleon ", and later four others: "Los tres Orleans" (IStiO"). " El Rey de ICspana " (18(19), " La ciicstioii dinastica" (1869), and " He-itauracinii " (1S72), leaving unpub- lished "El libro del jiueblo". In February or -March of 1870 he had an audience with Pius IX, who be- stowed on him many marks of special favour. In 1S71 he was elected .senator from Guipuzcoa. He was also made a member of the Royal tJpanisb