the Old Testament. Origen remarks that St. Paul does not ciuote "from public writings but from a sacred book which is called Jannes and .\Iambres". The names were known to I'liny, and figure in the Talmudic tradition.s. Recently K. James in the "Journal of Theological Studies", 1901, II, 572-577, <"laims to have found a fragment of this lost apoc- ryphon in Latin and ()\d Knglish versions.
(r) Third Hook oj Esdras. — This is also styleil by non-Catliolics the riist Book of Esdms, since they give to the first canonical Esdrine writing the He- brew form Ezra. Third Esdras is one of the three uncanonical books appended to the official edition of the Vulgate. It e.\ists in two of the oldest cod- ices of the Septuagint, viz., Vaticanus and Alexan- drinus, where it jirecedes the canonical Esdras. The same is true of MSS. of the Old Latin and other ver- sions. Third Esdras enjoyed exceptional favour in the early ages of the Church, being (luoted as Scri|v ture with implicit faith by the leading Oreek and Latin Fathers (See Comely, Introductio (ieneralis,
I, 201). St. Jerome, however, the great minimizer of sacred literature, rejected it as apocrj-plial, and thenceforward its standing was impaired. Die book in fact is made up for the most part of materials taken from the inspired books of Paralipomcnon, ICs- dras, and Neheinias. put together, however, in great chronological confusion. AVe must suppo.se that it was subsec|uent to the above Scriptures, since it was evidently composed in Cireek and by an Alexandrian Jew. The only original part of the work is chapters iii-v, 6. This recounts a contest between three young Hebrews of the bodyguard of King DariiLS, each striving to formulate tlio wi.scst saying. The victory is awarded to Zorobabel (Zerubbabel), who defends Truth as the strongest force, and the audi- ence shouts: "Great is Truth and powerful above all things!" (.Uajna est Veritas et vrwvalibit .) The date of composition is not ascertainable except within very ■wide limits. These are on one side c. .300 B. c, the latest time assigned to Paralipomenon-Esdras-Ne- hemias, and on the other, c. .\. D. 100, the era of Josephus, who employed Third Esdras. There is greater likelihood tnat the composition took place before our Era.
(rf) Third Book of Machabees is the title given to a short narrative which is found in the Alexandrine codex of the Septuagint version and various private MSS It givas an accoimt of an attempted desecra- tion of the Temple at Jeru.salem by the Egj-ptian king. Ptolemy I\' (Philopator), after his victory over Antiochus the Oreat at Raphia, 217 B. c, and the miraculous frustration of his endeavour to wreak vengeance upon the Egj'ptian Jews through a mas- sacre with elephants. This apocryphon abounds in absurdities and psychological impossibilities, and is a very weak piece of fiction written in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew, and probably designed to en- courage its countrj-men in the midst of persecutions. It rests on no ascertainable historical fact, but ap- parently is an extravagant and varj-ing version of the occurrence related by Josephus, " .\gainst Apion ' ',
II, 5. The date cannot be determined. Since the book shows acquaintance with the Greek additions to Daniel, it cannot be earlier than the first century B. c, and could scarcely have found such favour among Christiaas if compo.scd later than the first century after Christ. The Sj-rian Church was the first to give it a friendly reception, presumably on the strength of its mention in the Apostolic Consti- tutions. Later. Third Machalx>es was admitted into the canon of the Greek Church, but seems never to have been known to the Latins.
Scnt'BER, llUlom of Ihr jFwuh People (EdinburRh. 188fi1 div. II. vol. 11.— Specinl for Book of Jubilws: Ciiari.es, The Book of Jubileea or Utile (irnesit (I,on.lon. 1892: text, trail.'., and criticism); Schodde, The Book of JubUeet (Oberlin. O., 1888); Headlam, art. in Hast., Dicl. ol the Bible.—
Special for Hook of Jannes and Mambres: Marbhall, articles ill Hastings. Diet, of the fltAfc.— Special for Third E«lra»: Old Tettament in (ireek, 11 (CambriclKe, 1896. 2d e<l., Cireek text) (Ixindon. 18K4. tr.); Thackekw. Fimt Book of liiuirat; Hast., Dicl. of Ihe «ii/f.— Speciul for Third Machabees: OLl Tettament, in tireek (2d cl., Cmnliridge, 1899; (Jr. text); CnCRTON. The Uncanonieal and .\ pocryphal Scriptures ( l.<jn- doii. 1884; tr.); Kairweatiier in Hast., Diet, of the Bible.
(.3) .'Ipocn/phal Psalms and Prayers. — (a) Psalms oj Solomon. This is a collection of eighteen psalms compo.scd in Hebrew, and, as is commonly agreed, by a Pharisee of Palestine, about the time of Pom- I)ey's capture of Jerusalem, (53 B. c. The collection makes no pretensions to authorship by .Solomon, and therefore is not, strictly speaking, apocryphal. The name of the wi.se king became associated with it later and doubtless was the means of preserving it. The spirit of these |jsalms is one of great moral earnestness and righteousness, but it is the righteous- ness of the Pharisees, consisting in the oljservaiice of the legal traditions and ceremonial Law. The Has- monean dynasty and the Sadducecs are denounced. A .Messianic deliverer is looked for, but he is to be merely human. He will reign by holiness and justice, and not by the sword. Free will and the resurrection are taught. The Psalms of Solomon are of value in illustrating the religious views and attitudes of the Pharisees in the age of Our Lord. The MSS. of the Septuagint contain at the end of the canonical Psalter a short psalm (cli), which, however, is "outside the number", i. e. of the Psalms. Its title reads: "This psalm was written by David himself in addi- tion to the number, when he had fought with Go- liath." It is based on various passages in the Old Testament, and there is no evidence that it was ever written in Hebrew.
(h) Prayer oj Mnnassrs (.Manasseh). — .\ beautiful penitential prayer put in the mouth of Manasses, King of Juda, who carried idolatrous abominations so far. The composition is based on II Paralipomcnon, xxxiii, 11-13, which states that .Manasses was carried captive to Babylon and there repented; while the same source (IS) refers to his prayer as recorded in certain chronicles which arc lost. I.«amed opin- ion differs as to whether the prayer which has come down to us was written in Hebrew or Greek. Sev- eral ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint con- tain it as an appendix to the P.salter. It is also incorporated in the ancient so-called Apostolic Con- stitutions. In editions of the Vulgate antedating the Council of Trent it was placed after the books of Paralipoiiionon. The Clementine Vulgate relegated it to the appendix, where it is still to be found in reprints of the standard text. The prayer breathes a Chris- tian spirit, and it is not entirely certain that it is really of Jewish origin.
Old Tettament. in Greek (Cambridge, 2d e<l., 1895-99): SciitRER. Itislory of the Jewish People IhdinburRh, 1886) div. II, vol. III.— Special for IValm.i of .Solomon: Hyi.e and Jame.s, Psalms of Ihe Pharisees (Cambri<lge, 1891) introduction and Eimlish text; Jamm in Hast.. Did. of Ihe Bible: Moffat. The Riilhteousness of Ihe Scribes anil Pharisees, in Erpotilor^ Times (1(K)2). X, 201-200. — Special for one hundred and hfty-lirat Psalm and Praver of Mana-sses: Chcrton, Uncanonical and A pocrjiphal Scriptures, tr. ( I^ndon, 1884); Porter, art. Prayer of .Vanassees in Hast.. Diet, of the Bible.
(t) Jewish Philosophy. — (a) Fourth Book oj Mach- abees. This is a short philosophical treatise on the supremacy of pious reason, tnat is reason regu- lated by divine law, which for the author is the Mo- saic Law. In setting up reason as the master of human passion, the author was distinctly influenced by Stoic philosophy. From it also he derived his four cardinal virtues: prudence, righteousness (or justice), fortitude, temperance; <pf>6int<"^. SiKaioavyii, ittSptta, auippoavrri, and it was through Fourth Machaljees that this category was appropriated by early Christian ascetical writers. The second part of tiie book e.\hibits the sufferings of Eleazar and