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APOSTOLIC


640


APOSTOLIC


Harmer, London, 1 vol.. 1893; Gebhardt, Harnack, and Zahn, "Patrum Apostolicorum Opera" (Leipzig, 1901); and F. X. von Funk, " Patres Apostolici" (2d ed., Tubingen, 1901), in all of which abundant reference will be found to the literature of the two preceding centuries. The last named work first appeared (Tubingen, vol. I, 1878, 1887; vol. II, ISSl) as a fifth edition of Hefele's "Opera Patr. Apostolicorum" (Tubingen, 1839; 4th ed., 185.5) enriched with notes (critical, exegetical, historical), prolegomena, indexes, and a Latin version. The second edition meets all just demands of a critical presentation of these ancient and important writings, and in its introduction and notes offers the best Catholic treatise on the subject.

P. G. (Paris. 18571, I, II, V; Eng. tr. in Ante-Nicene Library (Edinburgh. 1866). I, and American ed. (New York, 1903), I, 1-158; Freppel, Lea Ph-es Apostoliquea et leur epoque (Paris, 1885); Batiffol, La litt. eccl. grecque (Paris, 1901); Holland, The Apostolic Fathers (London, 1897); Wake, The Genuine Epistles of the Apostolic Fathers (London, 1893); Fleming. Early Christian ^Yitnesses (London, 1878); Cbutwell, -4 Literary History of Early Christianity (London, 1893), I, 21-127; Oxford Society of Historical Theology, The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers (Oxford, 1905); LiGHTFOOT in Diet, of Chr. Biog., s. v.; for the doctrine, see TlXERONT, Histoire des dogmes (Paris, 1905), I, 115-163; Ba- RElLLE in Diet, de thiol, cath. (Paris, 1903). I, 1634-46; Bar- denhewer, Geschichte d. altkirchl. Litt., I.

John B. Peterson.

Apostolic Indulgences. See Indulgences, Apos- tolic

Apostolic Letters (Jillerce apostolicce). — I. The letters of the Apostles to Christian communities or those in authority, i. e. the Pauline Epistles, including the Epistle to the Hebrews, together with the seven Catholic Epistles of the other Apostles. II. Docu- ments issued by the Pope or in his name, e. g. bulls and briefs.

F. M. RUDGE.

Apostolic Majesty, a title given to the Kings of Hiuigary, and used, since the time of Maria Theresa, by the King himself, as also in letters addressed to him by officials or private individuals. The origin of this title dates from St. Stephen, who is sup- posed to have received it from Pope Sylvester II in recognition of the activity displayed by him in promoting the introduction of Christianity into Hungary. Hartvik, the biographer of St. Stephen, tells us that the pope hailed the king as a veritable "Apostle" of Christ, with reference to his holy labours in spreading the Catholic Faith through Hungary. The bull, however, of Sylvester II, dated 27 March of the year 1000, whereby the pope grants St. Stephen the crown and title of King, and which returns to him the kingdom he had offered to the Holy See and con- fers on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with an administrative authority over bishoprics and churches, affords no basis for the granting of this particular title. Moreo\er, the bull, as is clearly proved by the latest researches, is a forgery of later date than 1.574. Pojje Leo X having conferred the title of Defensor Fidei on Henry VIII of England, in the year 1.521, the nobles of Hungary, with Stephen Werboczi, the learned jurist and later Palatine of Hungary, at their head, opened negotiations with the Holy See to have the title of "Apostolic Majesty", said^ to have been granted by Pope Syh-ester II to St. Stephen, conferred on King Louis II. But these negotiations led to no result. In 1027, Ferdi- nand 1 1 1 endeavoured to obtain the title for himself, but desisted from the attempt when he found the Primate of Hungary, Peter Pdzm.lny, as well as the Holy See itself, unwilling to accede to his request. When, however, n«'asuros were taken, in the reign of Leopold I (10.57-170.5) to make the royal authority supreme in the domain of ecclesiastical jurisdiction and administration, the title "Apostolic Majesty " came into use. .Maria Theresa makes use of the title


" Apostolic Queen " for the first time in the letters patent granted to the imperial plenipotentiary sent to the College of Cardinals after the death of Bene- dict XIV. In the instructions imparted to this ambassador the hope is expressed that the Holy See will not withhold this title in future from the ruler of Hungary. Pope Clement XIII, on learning of this wish of Maria Theresa, granted this title motu proprio to the Queen and her successors, by virtue of the Brief "Carissima in Christo filia", of 19 August, 1758. The title was thereupon asso- ciated with Hungary by an edict of Maria Theresa, which prescribed that the title "Apostolic King of Hungary " should be used for the future in all acts, records, and writings. Since then the King of Hun- gary has borne this title, which, however, only accrues to him after his coronation, and does not belong to him before that ceremony, nor does it extend to the Queen, or to the heir to the throne, the so-called rev jimior, who is crowned in the life- time of the reigning monarch. The rights exercised by the king in respect of the Catholic Church in Hungary are not connected with the title "Apostolic Majesty", but are exercised in virtue of the supreme royal right of patronage. (See Hung.\ry.)

Palma, Tractatus de titutis et scutis, quibus Marin Theresia ut regma Hungaria: utitur (Vienna, 1774); Kar.\C80NYI, The Records concerning St, Stephen and the Bull of Pope Sylvester (Hungarian — Budapest, 1891); FRAKNfil, The Patronal Right of the Kings of Hungary from St. Stephen to Mana Theresia (Budapest, 1895); Ferdin-^ndy, The Royal Dignity and Authority in Hungary (Budapest, 1896).

A. Aldasy.

Apostolic Mission House. See Catholic Mis- sionary Union.

Apostolic See, The (sedcs apostolica, cathedra apos- tolica). This is a metaphorical term, used, as hap- pens in all languages, to express the abstract notion of authority by the concrete name of the place in which it is exercised. Such phrases have the double advantage of supplying a convenient sense- image for an idea purely Intellectual and of exactly defining the nature of the authority by the adililion of a single adjective. An Apostolic see is any see founded by an Apostle and having the authority of its founder; the Apostolic See is the seat of authority in the Roman Church, continuing the .Apostolic func- tions of Peter, the chief of the Apostles. Heresy and barbarian violence swept away all the particular Churches which could lay claim to an Apostolic see, until Rome alone remained; to Rome, therefore, the term applies as a proper name. But before heresy, schism, and barbarian invasions had done their work, as early as the fourth century, the Roman See was already the Apostolic See par excellence, not only in the West but also in the East. Antioch, Alexaiu\ria, and, in a lesser degree, Jerusalem were called .Apos- tolic sees by reason of their first occupants, Peter, Mark, and James, from W'hom they derived their patriarchal honour antl jurisdiction; but Rome is the .Apostolic See, because its occupant perpetuates the apostolate of Blessed Peter extending over the whole Church. Hence also the title Apofttoliciis, formerly applied to bishops and metropolitans, was gradually restricted to the Pope of Rome, the Dom- nus Apuslolicus, who still figures in the Litany of the Saints at the head of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The authoritative acts of the popes, inasmucli as tliey are the exercise of tlioir Apostolical ))owcr, are styled acts of the Holy or Ajiostolii- .S'c. The Sec is thus personified as the rcpn'scntatixc of the Prince of the Apostles, as in Pope Leo lis confirmation of the Sixth General Council (Constantinople, 680-081 ): " Idcirco et Nos et per nostrum oHicium ha-c vene- randa Srdcs .Ajiostolica his <iu;v definita sunt, con- sentil. et lirali Petri .Apostoli aui'toritate confirmat " (Tlu'icrorc \\'c also and tlirough our oliice this vener- able .Apostolic See give a-ssent to tlie things that