Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/719

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645

APOSTOLIOiE


645


APOSTOLIOiE


tcrs infected by error and schism, still according t«  the acc-usloined Catholic Kite; the second, those who were initiated according to the Edwardine Ordinal, who on that account could bo ijrotnoted, since they had received an ordination that was null." The mind of Julius III appears also from the letter (29 January, 1555) by which Cardinal Pole sulxielogated his faculties to the Bishop of Norwich. To the same elTect is a Bull issued by Paul IV, •JO June, 1555, and a Brief dated 30 October, 1555. The "Apostolica! Cura>" cites also, amongst other caiics, that of John Clement Gordon who liad re- ceived Orders according to the Edwardine Ritual. Clement XI issued a Decree on 17 April, 170-t, that he should be ordained unconditionally, and he grounils his decision on the "defect ot form and intention ".

(2) The intriasic reason for which Anglican Orders are pronounced invalid by the Bull, is the "defect of form and intention". It sets forth that "the Sacraments of the New Law, as sensible and efficient signs of invisible grace, ought both to signify the grace which they etTect, and effect the grace which they signify". The rite used in administering a sacrament must be directed to the meaning of that .sacrament; else there would be no reason why the rite used in one sacrament may not effect another. ^\■hat etTccts a sacrament is the intention of ad- ministering that sacrament, and the rite used ac- cording t« that intention.

The Bull takes note of the fact that in 1662 the form introduced in the Edwardine Ordinal of 1552 had added to it the words: "for the office anil work of a priest", etc. But it observes that this rather shows that the .\nglicans themselves perceived that the first form was defective and inadequate. But even if this addition could give to the form its duo signification, it was introduced too late, as a centuiy hail alreatly elapsed since the adoption of the Etl- wartline Ordinal; and, moreover, as the liierarchy had become extinct, there remained no power of orilaining.

Tlie same holds good of episcopal consecration. The episcopate undoubtedly oy tne institution of Christ most truly belongs t() the Sacrament of Orders and constitutes the priesthoml in the liighest degree. So it conies to pass that, as the Sacrament of Orders ami the true priesthood of Christ were utterly elimi- nated from the Anglican rite, and hence the priest- hood is in nowise conferred truly and validly in the episcopal consecration of the same rite, for the like rca.son, therefore, the episcopate can in nownse be truly and validly conferretl by it; and this the more so becau.se among the first duties of the episcopate is that of ordaining ministers for the Holy Eucharist and Sacrifice.

The Pope goes on to state how the Anglican Ordinal had been adapted to the errors of the Keformers, so that thus vitiated it could not be u.sed to confer valid orders, nor could it later be purged of this original defect, chiefly because the words u.se<l in it had a meaning entirely different from what woulil be re- <|uired to confer the Sacrament. The force of this argument, which is clear to Anglicans them.selves, may be applied also to the prayer ".\lniightv God, Giver of all good things" at the beginning of the rite. Not only is the proper form for the .sacrament lack- ing in the .\nglican Ordinal; the intention is al.so lacking. -Vltliough the Church does not judge what is in the mind of the minister, she mu.st pass judg- ment on what appears in the external rite. Now to confer a sacrament one must have the intention of doing what the Church intends. If a rite be so changed that it is no longer acknowledged by the Church as valid, it is clear that it cannot be ad- ministered with the proper intention, lie concludes by e.xplaining how carefully and how prudently this


matter has been examined by the Apostolic See, how tho.se who examined it with him were agreed that the question liad already been settled, but that it might be rccdiisidered and decided in the light of the hitest controversies over the (|U('stion. He then declares that ordinations conducted with the Anglican rite are null and void, and iiMplnrcs those who are not of the Church and who sccK ortlers to return to the one shoepfold of Christ, where they will find the true aids for salvation. He also invites those who are the ministers of religion in their various congrega- tions to be reconciled to the Church, a.ssuring them of his .syiniiatliy in their spiritual struggles, and of the joy of all the faithful when so earnest and so disinter- ested men as they are embrace the faith. The Bull concludes with the usual declaration of the authority of this .\postolic letter. (See Anglican Ordkus).

For the text of the Bull, see Actu Sancla Sedis (Home, 1890), XXX, 193-20.3; Answer of the ArchbMopt oj Enulund to Iht Apostolic Leltfr of Pope Leo XI II on Enatwh Ordinations (Ixjnilon, 1897); A Vindication of the Bull "ApoiiloliccrCunt", by the i'ardimil Arcbttighop ami Bighopa of the Province of Westminster, In Reply to the Letter of the Anolican Arch- bishops of Canterbury ami York (Ix)ll(lou, 1898); Sempi.£, Anoltcan Ordinations (New York, 190G).

M. O'RiORDAN.

Apostolicse Sedis Moderationi, a Bull of Pius IX (1846-78) which regulates anew the system of censures and reservations in the Catholic Church. It was issued 12 October, 1869, and is practically the present penal code of the Catholic Church. Al- though its Founder is divine, the Church is composed of members who are human, with human pa.s.sions and weaknesses. Hence the need of laws for their direction, and of legal penalties for their correction. In the course of centuries tliesc penal statutes ac- cumulated to an enormous extent, some confirming, some modifj'ing, some abrogating others which had been already made. They were simphfied by the Council of Trent (1545-63). But afterwards new laws h.ad to be enacted, some had to be altered, and some abrogated as before. Thus these penal statutes became again numerous and complicated, and a cause of confu.sion to canonists, of perplexity to moralists, and often a source of scruples to the faithful. Pius IX, tlicreforc. sim])Iific(l them again after three hundred years of accumulation, by the Bull "'Apos- tolica' Sedis .Muderationi ". In cjuoting the more solemn papal tlccrccs, the practice is to entitle them from their initial words. (See Bulls a^d Bkiefs.) The wortis of this title are the first words of the docu- ment. The best general description that can be given of this legislation is an extract from itself. The fol- lowing translation of the introductorj' pas.sages of the Bidl is not quite literal, but it is faithful to the sense of the document: "It is according to the spirit of the .\postolic See to so regvilate whatever has been decreed by the ancient canons for the -salutary dis- cipline of the faithful, a-s to make provision by its suiircme authority for their needs according to al- tered times and circumstances. We have for a long time considered the lOcclesiastical Censures, which, per moilum hiUr scnirntiuc ijisiujuc facto incurrendoe, for the security and discipline of the Church, and for the restraint and correction of licence in the wicked, were wisely ilecrccd ami promulgated, have from age to age gradually and greatly multiplied, so that some, owing to altered times and customs, have even ceased to .serve the end or answer the occasion for which they were imposed; while doubts, anxieties, anil scruples, have for that reason not infre<iuently troubleil the consciences of those who have the cure of .souls and of the faithful generally. In Our de.sire to meet those difficulties. We ordered a thorough re- vision of those censures to be tnaiic anil placed be- fore I's, in order that, on mature consideration. We might determine those of them which ought to l>e retained and observed, and those which it would be