Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/733

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causality with the organization of all things, to the Son; final causality with the conservation and per- fecting of all things, to the Holy Ghost [cf. St. Thoni., ■' Sumnia Theol.", 1. Q. xxxix, a. 8; K. Dubois, " I)e Kxeniplarismo Divino, " XII, § 4 (Rome, 1.S97)]. Aj)- propriation ius a theological nietliml or theory is of comparatively recent origin. Hut from the begin- ning of Christianity, it was u.scil:us a sixjntaneous expression of the Catholic conception of tlic Trinity. It has its source, as ah-cady said, in .Scripture and in tradition. In Scripture it is used notably by St. Paul (cf. Ephcs., i, 3; iv, 4-6; Rom., xv, 9; II Cor., i, 3; xi, 31; cf. also, I Pet., i, 3). In tradition it is expressed especially in the formulas of faith, or Sym- bols (cf. Denzinger, " Knchiridion ", n. 2-13, 17, 47); in liturgy, and especially in doxologies (cf. Dorn Ca- brol, "Le livre de la pricrc anti(iue", xix, Poitiers, 1900); in inscriptions and pictures (Fran/.clin, op. cit.; H. Marucchi, "Kldments d'arch&ilogic chr6- tienne ", Uomc, 1900). As early as tlio third century with Origcn, later with St. (ircgory of Ny.ssa, St. Basil, St. (Ircgory Xazian/.cn, and others, the Greek Fathers speak of lh(^ •rXijcrtii, or divine appellations, though it cannot \>e said yet that they furnish a theory of appropriation (I)e RC-gnon: Ktudcs de thdologio positive sur la S. Trinity. Etudes xvii, xxv, Paris, 189S). Tills theory is established by the Latin Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries, especially by St. Ililarj', "De Trinitate ", II, n. 1; P. I,., t. X, col. 50; St. Augvistine, " De Trinitate", VI, x, P. L., t. XLII, col. 931; St. Leo the Great, "Sermo de Pentecoste ", LXXVI, iii, P. L., t. LIV, col. 405. In the Middle .\ges, the theory was accepted, com- pleted, and systetnatically taught by the Schoolmen (cf. St. Honaventure: In I Sent. dist. , xxxiv, q. iii; Opera, Qiiaracchi, 18S3, t. l"", 592; St. Thom., Sum. Theol., 1" pars., Q. xxxix, a. 8). Abelard, who considered the appropriated aualitics as l>elonging exclusively to the Person macie the subject of ap- propriation, w;us condemned in the Council of Sens (1141) and by Innocent II.

Dk.nzingkb, 'Enchiridion, n. .310-323; St. Hilary, De Trinitate, II, n. 1; P. L., t. X, ool. 50; St. .\rr.csTiNF., De Trinitate, VI, x; P. L., t. XLII, col. 931; Riciiabd of St. Victor, Dc tribua appropriatis pmonia, in P. />., CXCVI, col. 7, 991; St. Thomas, Sum. Theol.. I. Q. .xxxix, a.. 8; St. BoNAvr.NTCHE. In I Sen/., dist. XXXIV, Q. iii, Oporo. CJuar- acchi, 18S3. t. l>>: Petavius. De TrinUate. J,ib. VlII. iii. n. 1 (Venice. 1737); Fra.nzeli.n. De Deo Trino (Itome, 1881). th. xiii; PAQlrirr, Di«put<itionea theoloffic/r.seurommentaria in, Sum. Iheot. D. Thnma: De Deo uno el Irino (Quebec. 1893). disp. X., 1, a. 2; He I{e<inox. Eludes de Ihioloqie positive sur la S. Triniti, (Paris, 1898); PoiiLE. in Kirchentei.. s. v. " TriniUU "; Chollet, in Vacant, Did. theol. cathol., s. v. Appropriation aux Personnes, etc.

George M. Saia'age.

Apse (hat., apsis or absis, Ionic dr., i<f'lf, an arch), the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or aisles of a church. A similar termination is soinetimes given to tran.-icpts and nave. The term in ecclesiiustical architecture generally denotes that part of the church where the clergy are seated or the altar placed. It was so called from being usually domed or vaulted, and was so u.set,! by the Greeks and Romans. The term is .sometimes applied to a canopy over an altar; a dome; the arched roof of a room; the bishop's scat in old churches; a reliquarj'; a recess, semicircular in plan, covered over with a vault in the shape of a semi-<lome or any other de- scription of roof. The apse is always solid below, though generally broken by windows above. The chevet is an apse, always enclosed by an open scrxjcn of columns on the ground floor, and opening into an aisle, which again opens into three or more ap.sidal chapels. Sometimes the apse is a simple .semicircle; out of this, in some large churches, a smaller semi- circle springs, as Beckct's crown at Canterbury, and as in the cliurches at Sens. Langres. and many others in iMirope. Sometimes the choir finishes with three apses — one to the central aisle and one to each side I.— 12

aisle, as at .-^utun. Sometimes the plan is a semi- circle, eacli bay of which has a projecting semicircular apse, forming a .sort of duster of apses, as at Beauvais, Troyes, Tours, etc. The choir of late date at Le Mans is encircled by no less than thirteen apses, the centre one being twice the depth of the others, and forming the Lady Chapel. Large circular and polygonal apses generally liave radiating chapels witliin, as at Westminster .\bbcy. The term apse was first used in reference to a Roman l)asilica, of which it was a ch;iractoristic feature. There was an apse in the temple of .Mars I'ltor. It is now completely decayed, but in the time of Sabacco and Palladio there seem to have been sufficient remains to justify an attempt at restoration. It is nearly square in plan (112 feet by 120). The cella here is a much more important part than is usual in Greek temples, ami terminates in an, which afterwards became characteristic of all places of worship. In Trajan's basilica at one end was a great semicircular, the back part of which wius raised, being approacncil by a .semicircular range of steps. In the centre of this platform was the raised seat of the quscstor or other magi.strate who presided. On each side, upon the steps, were places for the as.sessors or others engagea in the business being transacted. In front of the apse was placed an altar, where sacrifice w;is performed before commencing any important public business.

In the basilica, when used as a place of Christian worship, dating from the fourth century, the whole congregation of the faithful could meet and partici- pate in the ceremonies and devotions. The bishop took the place occupied of old by the pr.ftor or quirstor; the presbyters, the places of the a.s.sessors. Very little change was needed to erect a Christian altar on the spot in front of the, where the heathen had poured out their libations at the com- mencement and conclu.sion of all important business. The basilica of the heathen became the ccctcsia, or place of a.s.sembly, of the early Christian community. In the church of Ibrihm, in Nubia, there is the pecu- liarity of an internal apse, which became general in Eastern, but less frequent in Western, churches, though sufficiently .so to make its introduction at this early |H'riod worthy of notice. Another example to make this early form intelligible is that of the church of St. Reparatus, near OrWansville in .\lgeria, the ancient Castcllum Tingitanum. According to an inscription still existing, it was erected in 252; but the second .apse seems to have been ailded about the year 403, to contain the grave of the saint. As it now stands, it is a double-ap.sed basilica, 80 feet long by 52 broatl, divided into five aisles and exhibiting on a miniature scale all the peculiarities of plan which we once fancied were not adopted until .some centuries later. In this instance both apses are internal, .so that the side aisles are longer than the central one, apparently no jKirtion of them having been cut off for calcUlica or vestries, as was very often done in that age. At Parenzo in Lstria there is a basilica built in the year .542, with three aisles and an apse at the end of each. The church at Torcello, near Venice, presents one of the most exten.sive and best preserved examples of the fittings of the apse, and gives a better idea of the mode in which the of churches were originally arranged than anything to be found in any other church, cither of the same age or earlier. The apse in the chapel of St. Quinide, probably of the ninth or tenth centurj', is the most singular as well as the most ancient part of the church, and is formed in a manner of which no other example scH'ms to be known. Externally. it is two sides of a .square; internally, a semicircle; at eacli angle of the exterior and on each face is a pilaster, fairly imitated from the Corinthian order, and sup- porting an entablature that might very well mislead