Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/754

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680

ARAUJO


GSO


ARAWAKS


Madrid, 1S69; the two parts, 1578, and an addition by OsoRlo, 1597. Pedro de Ona published an inferior poem, the Araitco domado, in 1596. and the Purvn indomito, by Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, was concluded in 1599. Finally Lope DE Vega also wrote an Arauco domado, of mediocre value. After that came the linguistic work by the Jesuit LuYS de Valdivia: Arte y gramdiica de la len^ita qiie corre en todo el reyno de Chile (Lima, 1(500), and the works of Aloned de OvALLE. Relacion vcrdadera de las Paces que capitido con el araucnno rebelde el marques de Baides, etc. (Madrid, 1642), and Hwldrica Relacum del Reyno de Chile (1646). The best known work from colonial times is that of the Abbate Molina; Saof/io sulla aloriii civile del Chile (1782), which has been translated into many European languages. The great collec- tion entitled Coleccion de hisloriadores primitivos de Chile (Santiago), ed. J. T. Medina, contains most (if not all) of the earlier writers on Chile and the Araucanians. For instance: (II) GoNGORA ilARMoLEJO, Historia de Chile desde su de- scubrimienlo hasta el afio de 1575; (III) Pineda y Bascuxan (from about 1650), Cautiverio feliz y razt'm de las guerras dilaladas de Chile, IV. Besides one of the works of Olivares, also Tribaldos de Toledo, Vista General de las continuadas Guerras, (V), cf. Santiago de Tesillo, Guerra de Chile y causas de su duracion (1621-59), VI; Marino de Lovera, Cr6nica del Reyno de Chile, IV; C)livarez, llistoria militar, civil y aagrada de Chile (18th century) VI; Historia de la Compai\m de Jesus en Chile (1736), XIV and XV; G(5mez Vidadrre, a contemporary of Molina, Historia geogrdfica, natural y civil de Chile (XVI); Gonzalez de Najera, Desen- gaao y Reparo de la Guerra de Chile (VIII-IX); Carvallo T GoYENEcnE, Descripcion historian, geoqrdfica del Reyno de ChUe—hom 1796 (XXII-XXIII); Perez Garcia, Historia de Chile. — Among modern authors, Medina, Los Aborijenes de Chile (Santiago, 1892); Gcevara, Historia de la CivUiza- cidn de Araucania (.Santiago. 1898); Barros .Arana, Historia general de Chile. (15 vols., Santiago, 1884); Ignacio Domeyko. Araticania y sus habilantes (.Santiago, 1845); Jose Felix de AiGUSTA, Gramalica araucana (Valdivia, 1903); Tableau civU et moral des Araucana {XVl, Annaleadeavoynoes, tr. from the Viagero universal); Smith, The Araucanians (New York, 1855); Lenz, Araukani^che Mdrchen (Valparaiso, 1892).

Ad. F. Bandelieh.

Araujo, Antonio de, a Brazilian missionary, b. at St. Michael's, in the Azores; d. 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in Bahia, and was for nine years Superior of the Missions of Brazil. He T\TOte a cate- chism in the native language of Brazil. Southwell says of it: "This catechism, oegun by others in Bra- zilian, he augmented considerably. It was published at Lisbon under his name, and is regarded as without a superior in the catechetical art. It was afterwards translated into the native American tongue."

SoMMERVOGEL, Blbl. dc la c. de J., I, 507.

T. J. Campbell.

Araujo, Francisco de, Spanish theologian, b. at Verin, Gahcia, 1580; d. Madrid, 19 March, 1664. In 1601, he entered the Dominican Order at Sala- manca. He taught theology (1616-17) in the con- vent of St. Paul at Burgos, and in the latter year was made assistant to Peter of Herrera, the principal professor of theology at Salamanca. Six years later he succeeded to the chair, and held it until 1648, when he was appointed Bishop of Sevogia. In 1656 he resigned his see, and retired to the convent of his order at Madrid. His writings are: Commentary on the " Metaphysics" of Aristotle (2 vols., Salamanca, 1617; 2d ed., ibid., 1631); "Opuscula tripartita, h. e. in tres controversias triplicis theologiiE divisa" etc. (Douay, 1633); a commentary in seven volumes on the "Summa" of St. Thomas (Salamanca and Madrid, 163.5-47); "Variie et selectie decisiones morales ad stat. eccles. et civil, pertinentes" (Lyons, 1664; 2d ed., Cologne, 1745). In the second vo'lume of his commentary on the "Prima Secundie" there is a treatise on Predestination and Grace, the doctrine of which is Molinistic. Martinez de Prado has proved that this was not written by Araujo, who, in a later work, shows clearly his adherence to the Thomistic teaching on those questions.

QufcTiK-EciiARD, Script. Ord. Prard., I, 609; Martinez de 1 RADo, Metaphyaica. I, 518; Nirii. Antonio. Bibliotheca Hxap. Nova: Meyer. Hist, cantroveritiarum de auiiliit gratia, I, II, c. xxiii, and II, ii, c. xvii; Serry, Hiat. rongregationum i' ""."'"'■ I^' 27; V, iii, ii; Hiikter, Nomenclator, II, ?"': "."'""""'Til. ft. Thomas et doc&ina praemotionia phya- I'^i^'V'"' '***"*'• •'■'82-588; Stanonik in Kirchenlex. (2d ed., 1882), I. 1228-1229.

W. D. Noon.


Arausicanum, See Ohanue, Council op. Arawaks (also Aruacas), the first American aborig- ines met by Columbus — not to be confounded witli the Aroacas or Arliouaques, linguistically allied to the Chibohas of Columbia — an Indian stock, widely distributed over South America. Tribes speaking dialects of the Arawak language are met with, in and between Indianis of other linguistic stocks, from the sources of the Paraguay to the northwestern shores of Lake Maracaybo (Goajiros), from the eastern slopes of the Andes in Peru and Bolivia to the Atlantic coast in CSuyana. The Arawaks were met by Columbus in 1492, on the Bahamas, and, later on, in Hayti, Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. In the fifteenth century and possibly for several centuries previous, Indians of Arawak stock occupied the Greater Antilles. It is not impossible that up to a certain time before Columbus they may liave held aU the West Indian Islands. Then an intrusive Indian element, that of the Caribs, gradually en- croached upon the southern Antilles from the main- land of Venezuela and drove the Arawaks north- ward. The latter showed decided fear of their aggressors, a feeling increased by the cannibalism of the Caribs.

Generally speaking, the Arawaks are in a condi- tion between savagery and agricidture, and the status varies according to en\ironnient. The Arawaks on the Bahamas were practically defenceless against the Caribs. The aborigines of Cuba and Hayti, en- joying superior material advantages, stood on a somewhat higher plane. The inhabitants of Jamaica and Puerto Rico, immediate neighbours of the Caribs, were ahnost as fierce as the latter and probably as anthropophagous. Wedged in (after the discovery of Columbus) between the Caribs on the South and the Europeans, the former relentless destroyers, the latter startling innovators, the northern Arawaks were doomed. In the course of half a century they succumbed to the unwonted labour imposed upon them, epidemics doing their share towards ex- termination. Abuse has been heaped upon Spain for this inevitable result of first contact between races whose civilization was different, and whose ideas were so incompatible. Colonization in its be- ginnings on American soil had to go through a period of experiments, and the Indians naturally were the victims. Then the experimenters (as is always the case in newly discovered lands) did not at first belong to the most desirable class. Columbus himself (a brilliant navigator but a poor adminis- trator) contributed much to the outcome l:)y meas- ures well intended, but impractical, on account of absolute lack of acquaintance with the nature of American aborigines. (See Columbus, Las Casas.) The Church took a deep interest in the fate of the Antillean Arawaks. The Hieronyniites and, later, the Dominicans defended their cause, and propa- gated Christianity among fliem. They also care- fully studied their customs and religious beliefs. Fray Roman Pane, a Hieronymite, lias left us a very remarkable report on the lore and ceremonials of the Indians of H.ayti (published in Italian in 1571, in Spanish in 1749, and in French in 1864); shorter descriptions, from anonymous, but surely eccle- siastical, sources, are contained in the "Documentos in^ditos de Indias". The report of Fray Roman Pane antedates 1508, and it is the first purely ethno- graphic treatise on American Indians.

While lamenting the disappearance of the Indians of the Antilles, writers of tlic t"olumbi:in period have, for controversial efTect, greatly exaggerated the nimi- bers of these people; hence the numlicr of victims charged to Spanish rule. It is not pos.sible that Indians constantly warring with each otlier, and warred upon by an outside enemy like the Caribs, not given to agriculture except in as far as women