FoTTR-CENTRED Arches. — These arches are parts of four different circles. The position of the centres varies greatly, and with them the beauty of the arch. Perhaps the most usual position is for the upper and lower centres of each side of the arch to be in the same vertical line. The four-centred arch has been considered peculiar to England; but it was common enough in Flanders at the same time it was in England. Ogee Arch. — As the upper curves of this arch are reversed, it cannot bear a heavy load, and it does not occur in pier arches. In France, the ogee arch does not seem to have come into general use till late in the fourteenth century. In late English Decorated and French Flamboyant the ogee arch is used to the greatest advantage. Its origin is unquestionably Oriental. It is used in India on a vast scale in those domes which are constructed by corbelling. In England it was not used construc- tionally, but only decoratively. The ogee arch, like the pointed arch, may vary greatly in form, according to the character of the arch whose curve is reversed to give the upper part of the ogee, and according to the length assigned to the upper curve. Foiled Arch. — Like the ogee, it is of decorative, not of structural, value. The round-headed, tref oiled arch is less common than the pointed. The cinquefoil is usually later than the trefoil arch. Elliptical Arches. — It may be doubted whether any true ellipitical arches ever occur otherw-ise than acciden- tally. The origin of the arch is not known. It was largely used by the Assyrians, and by the Egyptians as well, at a very early date; but for some unknown reason they did not introduce it into their greatest works. The practical introduction and use of the arch was due to the Romans. The pointed arch came into use about the twelfth century, and was destined to give birth to a new style of architecture. The pointed arch, whatever its origin, made its ap- pearance almost at the same time in all the civilized countries of Europe. As this was immediately after the first Crusade, it has been conjectured that the Crusaders came to know it in the Holy Land, and introduced it into their respective countries on their return from the East. It was in use among the Saracenic and Mohammedan nations, and was ex- tensively employed in Asia. But exactly with what nation in the East the pointed arch originated, and in what manner, are problems equally difficult to solve.
Thomas H. Poole.
Archaeology, Biblical. See Biblical Antiqui- ties. Archaeology, Christian. See Christian Ar-
Archaeology, The Commission op Sacred, an official pontifical board founded in the middle of the nineteenth century for the purpose of promoting and directing excavations in the Roman Catacombs and on other sites of Christian antiquarian interest, and of safeguarding the objects found during such excava- tions. At that period Giovanni Battista De Rossi, a pupil of the archa>ologist Father Marchi, had al- ready begim the investigation of subterranean Rome, and achieved results which, if confirmed, promised a rich reward. In a vineyard on the Anpian Way he discovered (1849) a fragtiient of a marble slab bear- ing part of an inscription, "NELIVS. M.VRTYR", which he recognized as belonging to the sepulchre of Pope Cornelius, martyred in 2,'):5, whose remains were laid to rest in the Catacomb of St. Callixtus on the Anpian Way. Concluding that the vineyard in winch the marble fragment was found overlay this Catacomb, he urged Pius IX to purcliase the vine- yard in order that excavations might be made there. The Pope, after listening to the representations of the young enthusiast, said: "These are but the
dreams of an archaeologist"; and he added that he had works of more importance on which to spend his money. Nevertheless, he ordered the purchase to be made, and he allotted an amiual revenue of 18,000 francs to be applied for excavations and future discoveries. The Commission of Sacred Arclia-ology was then appointed to superintend the application of this fund to labours in tlie Catacombs and else- where. The first meeting of this Commission was held at Rome at 1851, at the residence of Cardinal Patrizi, who presided over it by virtue of his office, and selected its members, first amongst them being the Sacristan of His Holiness. Mgr. Castellani, whose office up till then included that of the preservation of sacred relics. Mgr. Vincenzo Tizzani, a distin- guished scholar. Professor of History in the Roman University; Marino Marini, Canon of St. Peter's; Father Marchi, S.J., and G. B. De Rossi, were the first members. At present it is presided over by the Vicar of His Holiness, Cardinal Respighi, and among its members are such well known archaeolo- gists as Mgr. Giuseppe Wilpert, Father Germano, C.P., Father Bonavenia, S.J., Orazio Marucchi, Giuseppe Gatti, Baron Rodolfo Kanzler, Mgr. Stor- naiolo, and P. Franchi de' Cavalieri. The work achieved under its direction is very extensive. It includes the formation of the Museum of Catacomb Inscriptions and Christian Antiquities in the Lat- eran Palace; the enormous excavations and repairs in the Catacombs; the discovery and opening up of several subterranean chapels of third-century popes, of St. Cecilia, of the Acilii-Glabriones, and the Cappella Greca ; the opening up of many Catacombs now accessible to visitors; the publication of the three great volumes of De Rossi's " Roma Sotter- anea" and liis "Bulletin of Christian Archaeology ", still issued as "Nuovo Bollettino", by his disciples and successors, of the great volume (Italian and Ger- man) on "The Paintings of the Catacombs", by Mgr. Wilpert, and many other works of a kindred nature. Under its auspices the Collegium Cultorum Martyrum, or "Association for Venerating the Martyrs in the Catacombs, " and the " Conferences of Christian Archaeology", held now in the Palace of the Cancelleria, have been created, and are flourish- ing. It also furnished pecuniary assistance for the excavations made beneath the ancient Roman Churches of San Clemente and Sts. John and Paul, which brought to light very interesting underground churches long lost to sight and memory. Much of the great interest felt to-(.lay in Christian Arch- aeology is to be attributed to the outcome of the labours of this Commission.
Marucchi, Giovanni Battista De Rossi, Cenni Biografici (Rome, 1903): De Waal, in Die Katholische Kirche unserer Zeit und ihre Diener in Wort und Bild (Berlin, 1899); Baum- GARTEN, G. B. De Rossi, fondatore dcUa scienza di archtFolopia sacra (Italian tr. Bonavenia, Rome, 1892): Lfl gerarchia cattolica (Rome, 1906); Battandier, in Annuaire pontifical (Rome, 1899), 494.
P. L. CONNELL.^N.
Archange de Lyon, a preacher of the Capuchin order wliose name was Michael Desgranges, b. at Lyons, 2 March, 1730; d. at Lyons, 13 October, 1822. He joined the Capuchins 4 March, 1751, and held the post of lector in theology about the end of the eighteenth centvuy. In 1789, having preached against the States General he was obliged to leave France. He returned in disguise to Lyons about 1796 and became cur(5 of the parish of the Carthusians and on the re-establisliment of his order at ChambC'ry he resumed his montistic habit there in 1818. He devoted himself to preaching mi.ssions and stations in Savoy and France until, in 1821, he was able to re-open the former convent of his order at Crest in Valence. He died at Lyons 13 October, 1822. He is regarded as the restorer of the Capu- chin order in France. His works comprise: "Dis-