Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/775

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Hill of Mars, situated to the west of and close by the Acropolis at Atlieiis; (2) tlie court held upon the hill. All ancient legend accounts for the name of the hill by narrating that thereon the Amazons had offered sacrifice to Ares. Anotlier legend declares that upon this mount Ares had been trieil for the murder of Ilalirrhotius by a court of twelve gods. The latter legend was evidently suggested by the fact that from the earliest antiijuity the Hill of Mars was the seat of a council, which had for one of its duties the trial of certain criminal Hut the primary purpose of the council of the .\reopagus was to direct religious worship and therefore, incidentally, to judgment upon theological innovations. It may be that the council formally and judicially exerci.sed this function when St. Paul was brought before it; but it is more probable that the event narrated in Acts, xvii, 19 sqq. was not a legal trial of the Apos- tle or an authoritative judpnent of his doctrine. Rather, it would .seem from the informal character of his introduction to the as.sembly and his abrupt quitting of it in the midst of di.-<order (ibid., xvii, 32, 33) that he was conducted before the Areopag- ites upon the .sacreil hill merely that their curiosity might be .satisfied by seeing lum and hearing him, undisturbeil by the rout in the Agora below. Some have thought, however, that St. Paul, on the occa- sion in question, was subjecteil to a formal trial on the ground that the Hill of Mars was too .sacred a place to be invaded, and the council too august a tribunal to be disturbed except for actual judicial proceedings. At any rate it seems certain that in the time of St. Paul, the council of the Areopagus was clothed with judicial powers as considerable as it had over enjoyed, and that among its rights was that of passing final judgment in matters pertain- ing to the religion of the .\thenians. Before such a tribunal St. Paul was doubtless eager to speak, and the immetliate result of his address (ibid., xvii, 22-31) was tlie conversion of at least one of the members of the venerable council.

The most satisfactory description of the location and tho council, as well as of the incident, is to be found in Convbeare AND HowsoN, Life and Episties of St. Paul (London, 1850-52), ch. X.

James M. Gillis.

Areopolis (Rabbath-Mo.\b), a titular see of Pales- tine. Its episcopal list (44<>-,')36) is given in Gams (p. 454). There was anotlier town of the same name in Lydia, Asia Minor.

I.EQriKN. Orirna Christ. (1740), III, 536; SMrra, Diet, of Greek ami lln,m,n Oeogr., I. 197.

Arequipa, The Diocese of, suffragan of the .Arch- diocese of Lima, Peru, was erected by Gregorj" XIII 1.5 April, 1.577, at the reouest of Philip 11, who had asked for three Peruvian uioceses under royal patron- age. The population in 1901 was 3.5,000. It has a cathedral dedicated to the A.ssumption of the Blessed Virgin, a Jesuit college, a hospital, and several convents. Arequipa is the second city in Peru. It is near the volcanic peak of the Andes called Misti, and in IStiS sufferetl earthquake shocks whicli destroyed most of the buildings and killed GOO people. Arequipa was founded by Pizarro.

Battasdieh, .-Inn. pont. cath., 1900.

Arethas of Osesarea, b. at Patra?. Greece, about SCO, w:is, like all the eminent men of that time, a dLsciple of Photius. lie became .Vrchbishop of Ca'- sarea early in the tenth centurj', and is reckoned one of the most scholarly theologians of the Greek Church. He is the compiler of the oldest extant Greek commentary (xcliolin) on the .\pocalvpse. for which he m.-ule considerable use of the similar work of his predeces.'for. Andrew of CVsarea. It wsis first printed in 1,535 :ts an .appenilix to the works of (Kcumenius and is found in P. (i., C'VI, 493. Dr. Khrhard inclines to the opinion that he wrote

other Scriptural commentaries. To his interest in the earliest Christian literature, caught perhaps from the above-named Andrew, we owe the Aretluts Codex (Paris, (ir. 451), through which the text of the Greek Christian .Apologists has, in great measure, reached us (Bardenhewer, Patrologie, 40). He is also known .is a commentator of Plato and Lueian; the famous manuscript of Plato (Codex Clarkianus), taken from Patmos to London, was copied by order of Areth;is. Other important Greek manuscripts, e. g. of Kuclides, the rlulor Aristides, and perhaps of Dio Chrysost-om, are owing to him. Not a few of his minor writings, contained in a Moscow manu- script, are said still to await an editor (see P. G., loe. cit.. 787). Krumbacher emphasizes his fondnes.i for ancient classical Greek literature and the original sources of Christian theology, in spite of the fact that he lived in a " dark " century, and was far away from any of the few remaining centres of erudition. The latest known date of his life is 932.

KRU.MHA<'llEn, Ofschicfite dtr byxttniin. Litteratur, 2d e<l. (Munich, 1897), 524; Khhiiahd, ib., 131; Geuharu and Hak- NACK, in Tejte und Vnterauchunfjen, I. 1-2 (Leipzig. 1882). 3(>-4e; .Maas, in A/(7anffi» Uraux (Paris, 1884), 749-7(i(i; Wattenbach. .■inleilunn zur arirch. PaUographie, 3d cd. (1895), 61; VON Otto. W/n '/.riUilIrr det Enhiachoft Arelhaa. in ZeiUchr. f. wUtentichaftl. Theoloiiit (1878). XXI, 539.

Thomas J. Shahan.

Arethusa, a titular see of Syria near Apameia. Its episcopal list (325-G80) is given in Gams (p. 430). It was also a Latin see for a brief period dunng the Crusades (1099-1100). In the time of Constantius (337-361) its Bishop, Marcus, destroyed a heathen temple which under Julian he was ordered to rebuild. To avoid this he fled from the city, but eventually returned to save the Christian people from paying the penalty in his stead, antl underwent very cruel treatment at the hands of the pagan mob (Sozomen, Hist. Keel., X, 10). He is .said to have been the author of the Creed of Sirmium (351) and is counted by Tillemont as an Arian in belief and in factious spirit.

Lequien, Orient Christ. (1740). II, 915-816: SMrrii, Did. of Grtek and Roman Geogr.. I, 197; Stokes in Did. of Chrial. Biog., Ill, 825; Tillemont, Mi-moirea. etc., VII. 307-370. Thomas J. Shahan.

Arevalo, Faustino, a learned Jesuit hjTnnographer and patrologist, b. 23 July, 1747, at Campanario in Estremadura (Spain); d. at Madrid, 7 Januarj', 1821. He entered the Society in 1701, but was deported to Italy on the occasion of the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain (1767). Here he won the esteem and confidence of Cardinal Lorenzana, who proved a Ma-cenas for the young Spanish Jesuit, bore the exf)enses of his learned works, and made him his executor. Art-valo was much esteemed at Rome and held various offices of trust, among them that of "pontifical hymnographer"; he was m.ade theolo- gian of the Penitenzieria (see CvniA Romana) in 1809, in succession to the learned Muzzarelli. In 1815 he returned to Spain, recalled by King Ferdi- nand, entered the restored Society, and became Provincial of Castile (1820). His principal works are: "Hjminodia Ilispanica" (Rome, 17.86), a restora- tion of ancient Spanish hymns to their original met- rical, musical, and grammatical [x-rfection. (This work was much esteemed by Cardinal Mai and I)om (ludranger. Among the dissertations that accompany the m:iin work is a curious one on the breviary of Cardinal Quignonez.) "Prudentii Carmina" (l{onie, 178,S-,S9, 2 vols. 4to.); "Dracoiitii Carmina" (Home, 1791), the [xx-ms of a fifth-century Christian of Roman Africa; "Juvcnci EvaiigeliciC Libri IV (Rome, 1792); "('alii Scdulii Opera t)mnia" (Rome, 1794); "S. Isiilnri lli..~pa- lensis Opera Omnia " (Rome, 1813); " Missale (iothi- cum" (Rome. 1804). Artjvalo stands in the front rank of Spanish patristic scholars. He shed great