Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/777

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703

ARGENTINE


703


ARGENTINE


Seal ok AKoii.NTUNE Rki'uulic


States, united by a federal Constitution framed on the same linos as the Constitution of the United States of America. The provinces are: Buenos Aires, Santa I'Y-, Entre Ktos, Corrientes, CYjriloba, San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Mendoza, San Juan, La Rioja, Cata- marca, Tucunuin, Salta, and Jujuy. Each one has it own constitution, and its own autonomic gov- ernment. The fed- eral Constitution was promulgated 25 Sep- tember, ISGO. The (illicial name of the union, under the federal Constitution, is "The Argentine Nation". In addi- tion to the fourteen conuiionwealths con- stituting the union, there are ten " na- tional territories", depending upon the federal executive, the government of which is entrusted to governors appointed by the Presi- dent with the advice and consent of the Senate. Those territories are called Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, Los .\ndos. La Pampa, NeuiuKf-n, Rto Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz, and Tiorra del Fucgo. There is also, and this completes the similarity of organization between the .Vrgentine and the American Union, a "Federal District", namely, the city of Buenos Aires, which is also the capital of the State of the same name. Geogkaphical Situation, .\kea, Popul.vtion. — The .\rgentine Republic is situated in the .south- eastern part of South .-Vmcrica and is bounded on the north by BoUvia, Paraguay, and Brazil; on the east by Paraguay, Brazil, llruguay, the River Plata, and the .Vtlantic Ocean; on the south by Chile and the Atlantic Ocean; and on the west by Chile, from wliich it is separated by the Cordillera de los Andes. Nearly all its area, roughly estimated at 3,000,000 squarb kilometres (about 1,17.">,000 stjuare miles), is iiuludod between 21° 30' S. lat. and 54° 52' S. lat. Witli tlio exception of a small strip of land on the north, which is in the tropics, the entire country is within the temperate zone. From east to west the country lies between 52° and 74° W. long.

According to the last official census, which was taken 10 May, 1895, the total popidation of the Republic was 3,945.911, distributed as follows: Argentines, 2,950,384; foreigners, 1,004,527. The male population was given as 2.088,919; the female as 1,8(>5,992. Of the foreign pop\dation, 492,630 were Italians; 198,685, Spaniards; 94,098, French; 91.167, Spanish .\mericans (Bolivians, Chilians, I'ruguayans, and Paraguayans), 24,725, Brazilians; 21, 7NS, "British; 17,142, Germans; 12,803, .\ustrians; anil 1,:$S1, citizens of the United States of .\merica. Foreign immigration to the Argentine Republic, be- tween 1857 and 1903, was as follows:


The immigra


tion in


903


was:



Italians


42,358




Germans


1,000


Spaniards


21,917




Swiss


272


French


2,491




Belgians


174


English


560




Others


5,077


Total


73,849


Yf


A us


iMMir.UANTS


N.VTIONALITIES


1857-


-1S60


20,0' KJ


Italians


1,331,536


1S61-


-1.S70


1,")9,570


Spaniards


414.973


1S71-


-1880


260,613


French


170,293


1S81-


-18S)0


846.568


English


35,435


1891


-1900


648, .326


.Austrians


37,953


1901


-1903


223,346


Germans Swiss Belgians Others


30,699 25,775 19,521 92,238


2,158,423


2,158,423


HisTOKY. — The territory of the .Argentine Re- public was origiiudly inhabited by Indian tribes of fierce disposition who were "reduced" to civilization thrciugli the Catliolic religion. The mis-sions founded in tlicsc Rginns were called " Reducciones" (Reduc- tions) by the Spaniards to convey the idea that these establishments were intended to tame the wild spirit of the savages and "reduce" them to a con- dition of relative civilization. The first Spanish establishment in the region of the Rfo de la Plata, or Plate River, was the fort called La Sancti Spiritus, crertcd by Seba.stian Cabot, a Venetian m the .service of Spain, and son of John Cabot the cele- bratecl navigator who cruised along the eastern coast of North .\merica. This fort was erected in 1526 at the confluence of the Paraiul and Carcaraiia Rivers, and was garrisoned with 170 men. Four years later it was destroyed by Timbu Indians, who killed the men, carried away the women and children, and burned all the buildings. Together with the report of his trip to these regions Cal)()t forwarded to Spain some silver jewels which the Guarani Indians had pre- sented to him; wlicnce comes the name of Rio de la Plata (River of Silver), given to the .stream through the mistaken idea that silver mines abounded on its banks. In l.')35 Don Pedro de Mendoza, a Spanish general in the service of Charles V, came with a powerful expedition consisting of 14 ships and 2,000 soldiers, and on 6 January hiid the foundations of a city which he called Santa Maria de Buenos .Vires. Some time afterwards this settlement was attacked and partially destroyed by the Indians. The work of rebuilding it was begun 11 June, 1580, by Don Juan de tiarayi The city of La .\sunci6n, now the capital of Paraguay, was founded by Juan de Ayohis, a lieu- tenant of Mendoza, 15 August, l.')36. T'nderthe rule of Hernando .\rias de Saavedra, generally called Iler- nanilarias, who was born on Argentine soil, and had been elected governor by the .settlers, the Jesuits were called to civilize the Indians. The first Fathers landed at Salta in 1586, and established a college at C6rdoba, from which they .sent missionaries to all parts of the Argentine territory. Fathers Montoya and Cataldino went to Paraguay and settled, in 1610, at La Asun- cion. Seven years after the landing of the Jesuit Fathers, over "100,000 Indians had been congregated in four ilifferent towns and were engaged in agri- cultural pursuits and useful arts and trades. They built houses, hospitals, and asylums; learned to read and write, and became acquainted also with painting, sculpture, and music. Even at this early date they hatl established a printing office with type made by themselves. In course of time, this work of civilization was greatly extended. The "Geo- grafia .Vrgentina" of Sefiores Urien and Colombo says that in or about 1631 there were not less than thirty centres of population under the rule of the Jesuits. V.'M-h town had a curate who was at the same time the governor, the judge, and the spiritual adviser of the inhabitants. But the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Spanish dominions by the Government of Charles III put an end to this prosperous condition. The expulsion took place in Buenos .Vires, 3 July, 1767. Governor Don Francisco de Paula Bucarelli was the official entrusted with the execution of the di.sastrous measure. On 1 August, 1776, the Govern- ment of Spain derided to establish what it called the vice-royalty of the River Plate, under Don Pedro de Zeb'allos, the first viceroy. The last viceroy was