reported for the same year from any station is 0.80 of an inch, the greatest 25.05 inches. In October,
1903, a trace of snow is reported at one station; there is no report of snow in November at any sta- tion, and for the following six months, to May,
1904, inclusive, the greatest fall reported is 41.4 inclies, two stations reporting only a slight fall of snow. Agriculture is greatly dependent upon irrigation. Limited by supply of water for irriga- tion the area of farming land is probably 2,000,000 acres out of 72,000,000. About 40,000,000 acres, or more than one-lialf the area of the Territory, are available for grazing lands of superior quality. Mines of gold, of silver, of copper, and of coal are to be found in the Territory. Of manufacturing establishments there were 169 in the year 1905, with a capital of $14,395,654. The value of pro- ducts was $28,083,192. The value of the products of smelting and refining copper comprise 81.1 per cent of the total of all industries, and these, with cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railroad companies, flour and grist-mill products, lumber and timber products, are the four leading industries. There are 1,509 miles of railroads. (See Council Memorial No. 1, Appendix B, in The Revised Statutes of Arizona Territory, 1901, p. 1511.) The assessed valuation of taxable property for the year 1900 is stated to have been $33,782,465.99.
Territori.^l Government. — In the same manner as for other Territories of the United States, the governor of Arizona is appointed by the President. A legislative assembly elected by counties meets every two years. There is no female suffrage ex- cept at elections of school trustees. A Bill of Rights provides that the civil and political rights of no per- son are to be enlarged or abridged on account of his opinions or behef concerning religious matters. It is also provided by law that no person shall be incompetent to testify as a witness on account^ of religious opinions or for want of rehgious belief. An elaborate system of public-school education is established by law. There are a university and two normal schools and more than 15,000 children are educated at the public scliools. (See above cited Memorial.) Among tiie "powers and duties" of boards of trustees of school districts, a statute mentions the excluding "from school and school libraries of all books, pubhcations or papers of a sec- tarian, partisan or denominational character". No books, tracts or papers of a sectarian character are to be used in or introduced into any public school, nor "any sectarian doctrine taught therein". No school funds are to be received by "any school whatever under the control of any religious denomi- nation". A teacher is subject to revocation _ of certificate or diploma "who shall use any sectarian or denominational books or teach any sectarian doctrine, or conduct any religious exercises in his school".
Church in Arizona. — In 1850, New Mexico, having been ceded to the United States, was made a vicariate Apostolic and entrusted to the Right Rev. John B. Lamy, formerly a priest of the Diocese of Cincinnati. On his arrival, as he stated to the Propaganda in 1865 when referring to con- ditions liappily passed away, he found in the vast vicariate twenty priests, neglectful and extortionate, churches in ruins, and no schools. In 1853 New Mexico was erected into the Diocese of Santa F6, and Dr. Lamy became its first bisliop. The territory added to the national domain liy the (ladsdcn treaty, in 1854, wa.s placed under his juris(Ucli()n. and he, in 1859, sent Verj- Rev. J. P. Machebn'uf to Tucson. Until a rude cliapel could be erected Mass was said there in a private house. In 1863, two Jesuit.s undertook the mission, and one of these priests
" revived Catholicity ", to quote the words of Dr. Jolin Gilmary Shea, " at the splendid old church of San Xavier del Bac" (tlie corner-stone of which seems to liave been laid in 1783), "long a solitary monu- ment in a wilderness, the neighbouring inhabitants having been driven off by hostile Indians". During the Civil War ecclesiastical affairs continued peace- ful, and in 1865 the bishop reported to the Propa- ganda an estimated CatnoUc population of five tliousand in Arizona, and a great improvement in ecclesiastical matters. In 1868, Rev. J. B. Salpointe was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Arizona, and consecrated Bishop of Doryla, 20 June, 1869. The vicariate Apostolic was erected into the Diocese of Tucson in 1897, the Rev. P. Bourgade, afterwards Archbishop of Santa F6, becoming its first bishop. The dioce.se comprises the whole Territory, 112,920 square miles, with a portion, amounting to 18,292 square miles, of New Mexico. In the diocese there are 25 secular priests, 11 regular priests, 21 churclies, with resident priests, 31 missions witli churches, and 95 stations, 6 parocliial and 4 Indian schools, the total of young people educated in Catliolic institu- tions being 2,000. The Cathohc population is about 40,000. A law of the Territory, passed in 1903, permits "any per-son being the archbishop, bishop, president, trustee in trust, president of stake, over- seer, presiding elder, rabbi, or clergyman of any cliurch or religious society" to become a corporation sole "witli continual perpetual succession". (For Arizona Missions, see New Mexico.)
Bancroft, History of Arizona and New Mexico (San Fran- cisco, 18S9), 492-497, 603-S09, 512-516, 520-526, 530-534, 572, 595-597, 601, 603, 60S, 606 and c. xxiii; Pumpelly. Across America and Ama (New York, 1870), III, 29, 30, 34 sqq.; Andrews, The United States in Our Own Time (New York, 1903), 2, 171, 172; Richardson, A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (1898), V, 456, 514, 515. 568: VIII, 101; Hough, American Constitutions (Albany. 1872), II, 532, 533; The Revised Statutes of Arizona Territory. 1901 (Columbia, Missouri, 1901), Paragraphs 13, 32, 33, 37. 38, 39, 2538, 2282, 2176, 2130-2271; Acts. Resolutions and Memo- rials of the Twenty-second Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona. 1903, no. 41; Twelfth Census of the United Stales. Taken in the Year 1900 (Washington. 1901); Bulletin SO. Cen- sus of Manufactures. IbOB (Washington, 1906); U. S. Depart- ment OP Agriculture, Report of the Chief of the Weather Bureau. 1903-1904, Parts IV, V (Washington, 1905); Shea, A History of the Catholic Church from the Fifth Provincial Council of Baltimore. ISiS. to the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore. 1866 (New York, 1892), 293, 306, 660-666; The Catholic Directory. 1906 (Milwaukee. Wis.).
Ch-vrles W. Slo.^ne.
Ark is a generic term which, in the Bible, is applied to two different objects: the one, the refuge in whicli, according to the Biblical narration, Noe was saved from destruction in the Deluge; the other, a piece of the tabernacle and temple furniture.
Noe's Ark. — The Hebrew name to designate Noe's .\rk, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' childhood, suggests the idea of a box of large proportions, though the autlior of Wisdom terms it a vessel (Wisd., xiv, 6). The same conclu.sion is readied from the dimensions attributed to it by the Bible narrative; three hundred cubits in lengtli, fifty in breadth, and thirty in heiglit. The form, very likely foursquare, was certainly not very con- venient for navigation, but, as lias been proven by the experiments of Peter Jansen and M. Vogt, it made the .\rk a very suitable device for shipping iieavy cargoes and floating upon the waves witliout rolling or pitching. The Ark was constructed of gofer wood, or cypress, smeared without and within with pitdi, or bitumen, to render it water-tight. Tlie interior contained a certain number of rooms distriliuted among three stories. The text men- tions only one window, and this measuring a cubit in height, but there existed possibly .some others to give to the inmates of the Ark air and light. A door had also been set in the side of the Ark; God siiut it from the outside when Noe and his family