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ARNE 746

bishop of Paris, to forestall the tempest which the obligation of signing the Formulary would arouse at Port Hoy:U. At the same time he encouraged the religious to resist or take refuge in subtleties which took all sincerity from their submission. Arnauld was one of the four prelates who in 1665 loftily re- fused to sign the Formulary of Alexander VII, and issued a mandate against it. He was about to be cited before an ecclesiastical tribunal when the pope died. Clement IX, successor to .Mexander VII, judged it preferable in the interests of religion to silence the whole affair. He accorded the Clemen- tine Peace to this party, and they insolently took advantage of it. The bishop preserved his Jansen- istic sentiments to the very end, and did all in his power to promote the spread of this error in his dio- cese. He pursued with disfavour, and sometimes with vehemence, the partisans of orthodoxy. One should read the " Memoires " of Joseph Grandet, third superior of the Seminary of Angers, to know to what a degree Jansenism had imbued the bishop, who otherwise was not deficient in good qualities. It cannot be denied that he was energetic, austere, de- voted to his duty, and filled with zeal. In 1652, when the queen mother was approaching to inflict punishment on the city of Angers, which was in re- volt, the bishop appeased her with a word. On giving her Holy Communion, he said: "Receive, Aladame, your God, Who pardoned His enemies when dying on the Cross. " There is still quoted a saying of his, illustrating his love of work. One day, on being requested to take a day each week for relax- ation, he replied: "I shall willingly do so, if you give me a day on which I am not bishop. " But despite this excellent sentiment he remains one of the most enigmatical figures of the seventeenth-cen- tury episcopate. He dietl in 1692. at the ripe old age of ninety-five. The negotiations carried on by him at the Court of Rome and various Italian courts have been published in live volumes (Paris, 1745).

(Eavres completes de measire Antoine Arnauld, docteur de la miison H societe de Sorbonne (Paris-Lausanne, 1775-83); Correaponiance de Pasquier Quesnel (Paris, 1900); Memoires de mesaire Robert Arnauld d'Andilly, ecritea par lui~meme (Hamburg. 1734); Memoirea du P. Bapin. S.J. (Paris, 1865); Hiatoire du Janseniame par le P. Rapin (Paris, 1861); Fon- taine, Mernoires pour servir h ihiatoire de Port-Royal (Utrecht. 1736); Memoirea pour aervir h Ihiatoire de Port-Royal et^ A la vie de li Rev^rende Marie- Angelique de Sainte-Magdelcine Arnauld, rtformiirice de ce monaathe (Utrecht, 1747); Lettrea de la Mire Angeliqwe Arnauld (Utrecht, 1762-64); Du Fossf;, Memoirea pour aervir h Ihiatoire de Port-Royal (Utrecht. 1739); Rivet. Necrologe de I'abbaye de Port-Royal dea champs, ordre de Citeaur (Amsterdam. 1723); Coloni*, Bibliothigue jan- ahiiste, ou Catalogue alphabetiqiie dea principauT livres jan- a^nistes ou auapecta de janaenisme qui ont paru depuia la naiaaance de cette heresie (Brussels, 1762); Sainte-Bedve, Port- Royil (Paris); Montlaur, Angeliqut. Arnauld (Paris, 1902); Varin, La verite aur lea Arnauld (Paris, 1847); Letouhnead Memoirea de Joseph Grandet, and Hiatoire du Seminaire d'An- aers (Paris, 1893).


Ame, Thomas Augustine, an English composer, b. 12 March, 1710, at Tendon; d. 5 March, 1778. Although of Catholic parentage, he was educated at Eton, and was apprenticed in a solicitor's office for three years. In 1740 he married Cecilia Young, oldest daughter of Charles Young, organist of All Hallows, Barking, a pupil of Geminiani and one of the best singers of her day. Arne wrote the music for Thom.son and Mallet's masque of "Alfred", to celebrate the anniversary of the accession of the House of Hanover. It is in this work the well known "Rule Britannia" occurs. In 1742 Arne went to Ireland, and during his sojourn there produced his oratorio ".\bol" and his operas "Britannia" and "Comus" with great success. On his return, he was engaged again as composer at Dniry Lane, and in 174.5, in the same capacity at Vauxhall, Ranelagh, and Marylebone Gardens. The University of Oxford conferred the degree of Doctor of Music on Arne,


6 July, 1759. Three years after this, he wrote " Artaxerxes", an opera in the Italian manner, with recitative but no spoken dialogue, taking the text of Metastasio's " Artaserse". In 1764, Doctor Arne pro- duced his second oratorio, "Judith". His later pro- ductions were the music for Mason's tragedies of "Elfrida" and "Caractacus", additions to Purcell's music for "King Arthur", and some music for Gar- rick's ode for the Shakespeare Jubilee in 1769. Ame was buried in the Church of St. Paul, in Covent Gar- den. He was the first to introduce female voices into the choruses of oratorios.

Grove, Diet, of Music and Musiciana; Gillow, Bibl. Diet of English Catholics. I, 59, 62.

John J. a' Becket.

Ami Thorlaksson, an Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he \-isited Norway, in 1262, and became a friend of King Magnus. Ordained priest, he was soon ap- pointed administrator of the Diocese of Holar, and was conspicuous for his zeal regarding the law of celibacy. He was assistant of the Bishop of Pkalholt, in 1267, and succeeded him in that office, being consecrated in 1269 at Nidaros (Trondhjem) in Norway. On his return to Iceland, he set about organizing the ecclesiastical administration. Since the regulation of the hierarchy in Norway, in 1152, the Iceland bishops had become suffragans of the metropohtan of Nidaros. In 1264 Iceland became still more dependent politically on the king of Norway. Up to that time Iceland had been a republic, governed by the .A.lthing, which was com- posed of forty-eight chiefs, ninety-six councillors, and an announcer of laws, who was president. At the time Christianity was introduced many of these chiefs built churches on their lands and assumed at the same time ecclesiastical administration of them. The Church became identified with the State. The Althing, the legislative assembly in which the bishops had seats, made laws in matters of the church and controlled church affairs. Ami Thorlaksson, confronted with this state of things, protected the church interests, and especially had to fight for the investiture of priests and the temporal administration of the churches and their efi'ects. With this in view, ho visited Norway in 1273, and obtained some concessions from the king. On his return to Iceland, he proposed to the Althing (1275) a KristenTct. i. e. Christian law, with which his name is particularly associated. Some time after this the jus vatronatus (the right of patronage) revived, and the bishop made an appeal to the arbitration of the king and of the archbishop. Having arrived in Norway, in 1297, for this purpose, he succeeded in obtaining the compromise that where laymen owned more than half of a church they should retain its temporal management, but in every other case the bishops should have it. He died the same year at Bergen. Although he had not obtained all the rights of the Church, he at least secured its organiza- tion and uniformity, and, as far as civil law was con- cerned, such observance of the Laws as dependency on the kings of Norway permitted. History regards him as the most influential and important man of his time in Iceland.

Lorforaamlung for Ulami, 1096-1874 (Kjbhvn. 1853-89); Maurer, Udaigt over den nordgermaniake Retakildra Hialorie; Iliatoriake Forening (Krnia, 1878); sec also hterature on Arabon J(5n.

E. A. Wano.

Amobius, a Christian apologist, flourished during the reign of Diocletian (2S4-.3()5). St. Jerome says, in his Chronicle, that before his conversion Arnobius was a distinguished rhetorician at Sicca in Pro- consular Africa, and owed the gift of Christian faith to a dream. To overcome the doubts of the local bishop as to the earnestness of his Christian belief