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he wrote (about 305) an apologetic work in seven books that St. Jerome calls (Ue Vir. III., Ixxix) "Adversus Cietites" but is entitled "Adversus Na- tiones" in the only (ninth-centurj-) manuscript that has reached lis. Arnobius is a vigorous apologist for the Christian Faith, defends and expounds its noble monotheism (deus princepn, deux siimmus), the Divinity of Christ and of the Christian religion, proved by its nipitl dilTusion, its incredible influence over uncivilized peoples, and its agreement with the views of the best pliilosophers. Apro|>()s of the Christian tendencies of Plato, he has left ils a veiy remarkable treatise on the nature of the soul (II, 14-G2). Heathen idolatry he refutes as filled with contradictions and openly immoral. His work, especially Books III-V, abounds with curious in- formation gathered from reliable sources (e. g. Cornelius Labeo) concerning the forms of idolatrous worship, temples, idols, and the Grxco-Horaan mythology of his time, for which reason it is much esteemed by Latin philologists and antiquarians, Arnobius is more earnest in his defence of Christianity than correct in his tenets. Thus, he holds the heathen gods to be real beings, but subordinate to the su- preme Christian God; the human soul is not the work of God, but of an intermediate being, and is not immortal by nature, but capable of putting on immortality as a grace.

F. Sab.eds (Rome, 1543) is the editio princrps. It is found in P. L., V. The edition is thai of .\. llEiFFERacHEiD, Corpua script, eccl. Lat., IV (Vienna, 1875). See Hauden- HEWEH. Gench. d. allchr. l.itt. (I'reiburE, 1903), II, 404-72, and his Patroioaie (ihid., 1901), 175-77; Mocle in Diet, of Chriit. BiotT: 167-69; Ebert, Alio. Gesch. d. lat. LiU. det MitUlaUtTt (2d ed., Leipzig, 1889), I, C4-72.

Thom.\s J. Shahan.

Arnobius the Toiinger. See Augustine; Semi-


Arnold, name of several medieval personages. — AnxoLi) Amalricus, Cistercian monk, Abbot of Citeaux (1201), inquisitor and legate (1204), Arch- bishop of Narbonne (1212); d. 29 September, 122,'>. For a bibliogra])hy of his alleged order to slay indis- criminately both Catholics and Alliigenses at the siege of B^ziers (1209) sec Chevalier, "Repertoire" (Bio-Bibl., I, 319). The accusation has been amply refuted by Ph. Tamizey dc Larroque, "Revue des quest, hist." (Paris, 18(30), I, 179-186.— Arnold OF Badeto, Prior of the Dominican convent of Limoux, general inquisitor at Toulouse (1.531), d. 1536; author of a " Breviarium de mirabilibus mundi" (Avignon, 1499), " Destructorium ha-re- sum" (Paris, 1532), etc. — Arnold op Bonneval, a Benedictine abbey in the diocese of Chartres (1144- 56), correspondent and biographer of St. Bernard, and author of other works of a spiritual and edifying character (P. L., CLXXXIX, 1507-1760).— Arnold OF Cologne, the second master-architect of the cathe- dral of Cologne, successor of Meister Gerhard (129.5- 1301), To him and his son John are owing the up- per part of the apse and the completion of the choir. The change from three to five naves is said to have been made by his advice. His strength lay in the thoroughness and precision with which he carried out the details of the great architectonic plan of the cathedral. — Arnold of Corbie, Abbot of the Bene- dictine Monastery of .St. Matthias near Trier (c. 1063), author of a treatise on the tnanner of calcidating the Easter festival, made a Latin metrical version of the Book of Proverbs, and of a "Cyclus Paschalis". — Arnold of Halberstadt (996-1023), one of the principal feudal bishops of Oennany, and leader of the imperial forces against Boleslaw of Poland. — -Ar- nold OP Harff, b. about 1400, in the Duchy of Jillich, author of a pilgrim's journey (1 l!Mi-99) to the holy places and the Orient (ed. Groote, I.S60). — Arnold op H^beck (d. 1211-14), a Benedictine abbot, author of an important "Chronica Slavorum"

(1172-1209) and advocate of the papal cause in the Ilohenstaufen conflict (Michael, Gesch. d. deutsch. Volkes iin Mittclalter, III, 374). ^Arnold of Li beck, bishop of that see (1449-66), a learned canonist, zealous prelate, and peacemaker, especially (1465) between Poland and the Teutonic Order. — Ar- nold OF MoNTA.NERi, a Franciscan, condemned for his extreme ideas concerning the poverty of Christ and the Apostles, flourished about the middle of the fourteenth century (Wadding, Ann. Minor., VIII, 245). — .\rnold (jf Quedlinburg, German chronicler of the thirteenth century, d. after 1265 (Pottliast, Bibl. Hist. Med. Aevi, 2d ed., I, 120).— Arnold of Seleiiofen, Archbishop of Mainz (1153-()0), slain by the rival municipal faction of the Meingote (Kirchen- lexikon, I, 1424).— .Xrnold of Tongres (Luydius, a Lude), canon regular, b, at Tongrcs; d. 1540, at Ley- den; dean (1494) of the faculty of arts at Cologne, profes.sor of theologj', canon of the cathedral of Cologne, author of a commentary on Juvenal, and of a work "Contra Sacerdotes Concubinarios". He displeases! the humanists by his attitude in the Reuclil'n conflict, and was made the butt of Hutten's satire (Janssen. Gesch. d. dcutschen Volkes., etc., I, 111, 18th ed.; 11, 47, 18th ed.).— Arnold op ViLi^NUEVA, see Viulanueva. — Arnold op Voh- BURG, Benedictine Prior of St. Emmeram at Regens- burg (1084), author of a life of St. Emmeram. [" Patrologia Latina," CXLI; Wattenbach, " Deutsche Geschichtsquellen " (6th ed.), I, 64 sq.].

Thomas J. Shahan.

Arnold of Brescia (.\rnaldiis, Arnoldus, ErnaIi- Dus), b. at Brescia towarils the end of the eleventh century;« of death uncertain. If there is any truth in the statement made by Otto of Freisingen that Arnold completed his stuaies under the direc- tion of .^bel.ard. he must have gone to Paris about 1115. This would explain the affection towards the F'rench master which he showed later in life, and we could e;usily understand how it came about that Abelard called him to his side after the Lateran 0)uncil of 1139, as St. Bernard intimates he did. In the judgment of some critics, however, there is not sufficient evidence for this first sojourn of Ar- nold in France, vouched for by Otto of Freisingen alone, .\sniring to a perfect life. Arnold at a tender age entered a convent of ciuions regular in his native city where he was ordained a priest and appointed prior or provost of his community. He was fitted for this high office by the austerity of his life, his detachment from earthly things, his love of re- ligious discipline, the cle.ime-ss of his intellect, and an originality and charm of expres,sion that he brought to the service of a lofty ideal. Brescia yielded to his powerful influence, and in the course of some years Arnold was placed at the head of the reform movement then stirring the city. Precisely at this time Brescia, like most other Lombard cities, was entering upon the exerci.'ie of its municipal lib- erties. The government was in the hands of two consuls elected annually, but over against their au- thority that of the bishop, as principal landed pro- prietor, still remained. Hence arose between the rival forces inevitable conflicts in which were in- volvcfl, together with political p.assions. the interests of religion. The sight of these conditions grieved .\rnolil and prompted him to apply a remedy. By constant dwelling on the eviLs which afflicted botn city and Church, he came to the conclusion that their chief causes were the wealth of the clergy and the temporid power of the bishop. Was it not best, therefore, to take drastic measures at once to strip the nioniisteries and bishoprics of their wealth, and transfer it to laymen? W.os not this the surest and quickest methoil of satisfying the civil authorities, and of bringing back the clergy, by poverty, to the