will be the present use of the word Abraham in the Roman liturgy:
I. Martyrology (9th October): "Eodem die memoria S. Abrahæ Patriarchæ et omnium credentium Patris" (The same day, the memory of S. Abraham Patriarch and Father of all believers).
II. Ritual (a) In the Ordo commendationis animæ (Recommendation of a soul departing), the brief litany includes but two names from the Old Testament, that of the Baptist belonging to the New Testament:—
|Holy Mary,|| Pray for him.|
|All ye holy Angels and Archangels,|
|All ye choirs of the just,|
|St. John Baptist,|
In the Libera (Deliver, etc.), which follows shortly after, many names of the Old Testament are mentioned, including Abraham, but omitting Abel: "Deliver … as thou didst deliver Abraham from Ur of the Chaldeans". (b) Benedictio peregrinorum (Blessing of pilgrims etc.). The second prayer reads: "O God, who didst guide Abraham safely through all the ways of his journey from Ur of the Chaldeans.…"
III. Breviary. (a) On Septuagesima Sunday the lessons from Scripture begin with the first verse of Genesis, and the formal narrative of Abraham begins with Quinquagesima Sunday, the lessons ending on Shrove Tuesday with the sacrifice of Melchisedech. (b) The antiphon to the Magnificat on Passion Sunday is: "Abraham your father rejoiced …" (John, viii, 56). Again, the first antiphon of the second nocturn of the Common of Apostles reads: "The princes of the people are gathered together with the God of Abraham". The occurrence of the name in the last verse of the Magnificat itself: "As he spake to our fathers, to Abraham and his seed forever" and in the Benedictus (sixth verse): "The oath which he swore to Abraham our father …" make the name of daily occurrence in the Divine Office, as these two Canticles are sung daily the former at Vespers, the latter at Lauds. In the Psaltery, also, recited during every week, the name occurs in Pss., xlvi, 10; civ, 9, 42. See also the third strophe of the hymn Quicumque Christum quæritis (Vespers of Transfiguration D. N. J. C. and various Lessons in the Nocturns, e.g. Feria 3a infra Hebd. vi p. Pent., Feria 3a infra oct. Corp. Christi, 2d nocturn).
IV. Missal. (a) The third of the twelve lessons called "Prophecies" read on Holy Saturday between the lighting of the Paschal Candle and the Blessing of the Font deals wholly with the sacrifice of Isaac imposed upon Abraham. The lesson (Gen., xxii, 1–19) is, like the others, not only read quietly by the priest at the altar, but also chanted in a loud voice simultaneously by a cleric. The dramatic incidents thus rehearsed must have impressed the catechumens deeply, as is evidenced by the reproduction of the incidents on the walls of catacombs and on sarcophagi. The lesson is followed by a prayer: "O God, the supreme Father of the faithful, who throughout the world didst multiply the children of thy promise … and by the paschal mystery dost make Abraham thy servant the father of all nations.…" (b) Again, in the prayer after the fourth lesson: "O God, grant that the fulness of the whole world may pass over to the children of Abraham.…" (c) The Epistle of the thirteenth Sun day after Pentecost: "To Abraham were the promises made.… But God gave it to Abraham by promise.…" (Gal., iii, 16–22). (d) Offertory of the Mass for the Dead: "O Lord … may the holy standard-bearer Michael introduce them to the holy light which Thou didst promise of old to Abraham.…" (e) In the Nuptial Mass, the blessing reads: "May the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, be with you …" (f) Of greater interest than anything thus far cited is the prayer in the Canon of the Mass, when the priest extends his hands over the Consecrated Species: "Upon which do Thou vouchsafe to look … and accept them, as Thou didst vouchsafe to accept the gift of Thy just servant Abel, and the sacrifice of our Patriarch Abraham.…" Here the Canon insists on the idea of sacrifice, a fact common to Western liturgies, while those of the East, except the Maronite, omit in their epicleses all reference to the typic sacrifices of the Old Testament, and appear concerned with impressing the faithful with the idea rather of sacrament and communion. This is esteemed a fact of capital importance towards a classification of the liturgies. (g) In the Sequence of Corpus Christi while Abraham is not named, his sacrifice (unbloody, like that of the altar) is commemorated in the lines:
In figuris præsignatur,
Cum Isaac immolatur.…
V. Pontifical.—In one of the Prefaces of the Consecration of an altar we read: "May it have as much grace with Thee as that which Abraham, the father of faith, built when about to sacrifice his son as a figure of our redemption …" Again, in the Blessing of a Cemetery (third Prayer) and in connection with Isaac and Jacob (sixth Prayer). Finally, in two of the Prayers for the Blessing and Coronation of a King. The exalted position of Abraham in Sacred History, and the frequent use of his name in invocations etc. in the Old Testament (e.g. Gen. xxviii, 13; xxxii, 9; xlviii, 15, 16; Exod., iii, 6, 15, 16; iv, 5; Tob., vii, 15 etc.), and the continued use thereof by the early Christians (Acts, iii, 13; vii, 32) made his name of frequent occurrence in prayers, exorcisms and even amongst Pagans, ignorant of the significance of the formula "God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob" etc., in magical rites and incantations, as Origen testifies.
A few instances of the use of the word in other Western and Eastern liturgies are given by Leclercq in Dict. d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie s. v.
Abraham, The Bosom of.—In Holy Writ, the expression "the bosom of Abraham" is found only in two verses of St. Luke's Gospel (xvi, 22, 23). It occurs in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, the imagery of which is plainly drawn from the popular representations of the unseen world of the dead which were current in Our Lord's time. According to the Jewish conceptions of that day, the souls of the dead were gathered into a general tarrying-place, the Sheol of the Old Testament literature, and the Hades of the New Testament writings (cf. Luke, xvi, 22—in the Gr. xvi, 23). A local discrimination, however, existed among them, according to their deeds during their mortal life. In the unseen world of the dead the souls of the righteous occupied an abode or compartment of their own which was distinctly separated by a wall or a chasm from the abode or compartment to which the souls of the wicked were consigned. The latter was a place of torments usually spoken of as Gehenna (cf. Matt., v, 29, 30; xviii, 9; Mark. ix. 42 sqq. in the Latin Vulgate); the other, a place of bliss and security known under the names of "Paradise" (cf. Luke, xxiii. 43) and "the Bosom of Abraham" (Luke, xvi, 22, 23). And it is in harmony with these Jewish conceptions that Our Lord pictured the terrible fate of the selfish Rich Man, and on the contrary, the glorious reward of the patient Lazarus. In the next life Dives found himself in Gehenna, condemned to the most excruciating tor-