Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/831

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ARTICLES


the modern Fayt^m (Coptic <t>-u>ii, Fiflm, i. e. Lake Mceris) it is celebrateil for the discovery (1877-78) of a great many papyri manuscripts, some of which are important for tlic earliest Cliristian history of Egypt; tliey are described in the Hellenic section of the reports of the " Kgj'pt Kxploration Fund". It has several Coptic churches and Moslem mosques, and some manufactures, especially of woollen stuffs. Its trade in rose-water and nitre is considerable. The population is about 26,000.

Another Arsinoe was located on the Heroopolite gulf of the Red Sea, and a.s one of the principal harbours of ancient Kgypt carried on an extensive trade with India in silks, spices, ivory, etc. It is mentioned in Exodus, xiv, 2, 9, and Numbers, xxxiii, 7, and is said to be identical with Argueroud near Suez. Arsinoe on the west coast of CS,^prus was an episcopal see from the fifth to the twclftli century (Gams, p. 439, and Lequicn, II, KHi.'i-tiS). Several other cities of the name are mentioned in Smith.

Leqcien. Orient Chritl. (1740), II. 581-584; Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman Geogr., I, 225.

Thomas J. Shahan.

Art, Christian. See Christian Art.

Artaud de Mentor. See Montoh.

Artemon (or Artkmas), mentioned as the leader of an Antitrinitarian sect at Rome, in the third centurj', about whose life little is known for certain. He is spoken of by Eusebius (Hist. EccL, V, 28) as the forerunner of Paul of Samosata, an opinion con- firmed by the Acts of a council held at Antioch in 201, which connect the two names as united in mutual communion and support. Eu.sebius (loc. cif.) and Theodoret (H^r. Fab., II, 4; V, 11) describe his teaching as a denial of Our Lord's Divinity and an assertion that He was a mere man, the falsifica- tion of Scripture, and an appeal to tradition in sup- port of his errors. Both authors mention refuta- tions; Eusebius an untitled work, Theodoret one known as "The Little Labyrinth", which has been attributed to a Roman priest Caius, and more re- cently, to Hippolytus, the supposed author of the Philosophoumena.

ScnwANE. in KircTienlex., I, 1451; Rardenhewer, Geech. d. allkirchl. LM. (Freiburg, 1902), II. 514.

Francis W. Gret. Arthur, James (Didacus Arturus), a Dominican friar, and a theologian of note, b. at Limerick, Ireland, early in the seventeenth century; d. (proba- bly) 1670. He became a member of the Dominican Order in the convent of St. Stephen at Salamanca, Spain, and taught theologj' in different convents of his order, especially at Salamanca, with great credit to himself and profit to his numerous students. In 1640 he was called to the University of Coimbra as first professor of theology, and lield this chair until 1642, when, on the oeca-sion of the separation of Portugal from Spain, lie was expelled for refusing to take the oath to defend the doctrine of the Ira- maculate Conception. He returned to the convent of St. Dominic in Lisbon, where he resided for many years and devoted himself to the preparation of a commentary on the Summa of St. Thomas .-Vquinas. The projected work was to have comprised ten volumes, but the death of the learned writer prevented its completion. Only the first volume was ever printed (16,'j,')); the second was completed and never published. The Dominican liistoriog- raphers Qudtif and Echard give Februarj-, 1644, as the date of his death, but the consensus of opin- ion is in favour of 1670. He wa-s buried in the convent of St. Dominic, Lisbon, Portugal, where he died.

Ware, WrUert and AntiquUiet of Ireland (ed. Ham.i. 1764). II. 160: Antonio, BMioth. Hitp. Nma, 11. 368; QvtTir and EniARn. Script. Ord. Prad., II, 636; Webb. Compend. of Iruh Biog. (Dublin, 1878), 4; Diet, of Nat. Biog.. 11, 135.

A. C. O'Neil.

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Arthur, Thomas, a celebrated Catholic physician of the .seventeenth century, b. at Limerick, l.')93; d. c. 1()6(). Verj' little is known of his career, the few facts on record being cliiefly related by liimself in a genealogical account in Latin elegiacs, preserved in the British Mu.seum (Additional MSS. 31,88.5), and in a manuscript diary of considerable interest, also in Latin, which gives particulars of his numerou," cases. This diary sliows him to have been held in the highest esteem as a physician. Arthur some- times called him.sclf Thomas Arthur Fit/.William, his father's name being WiHiam. He was eilucated at Bordeaux and sub.sequently studied medicine in Paris. He returned to Irelaml in 1019, and in May of that year started to practise his profession in Limerick. He succee<led so well that on the in- vitation of various inlhiential people he settled in Dublin, in 1624. When the Enghsh physicians failed to relieve Archbishop Ussher of a serious com- plaint from which he suffered Arthur was summoned to Droglicda to take charge of the case. With the " pseudo-primas .Vrdmachanus ", as he calls him, he stayetl for some time subsequent to 22 March, 1625, and accompanied him to Lambay Island for the cure. He was most successful, and his reputation as a .skilful physician was enormously enhanced by this ca.se. He received a fee of fifty-one pounds, then justly considered a munificent reward. He himself says that the cure made him famous among the English, whom he heartily tlisliked " for the sake of the Catholic religion ". In his diary he mentions another case for which he was paid ten pounds by the Marquis of Ormonde. In his diary he occasion- ally alludes to the affairs of Ireland but only in the briefest possible way. His Catholic feelings are everywhere .shown. Among his patients was Charles Fleetwood, Commander-in-Chief of the English forces in Ireland, at whose request he wrote a treatise on the disease from which that soldier was sulTering. The only writer who seems to have made use of Arthur's manuscript is Maurice Lenihan in his "History of Limenck", where one or two epigrams are quoted.

Tho.mpson, in Diet, of Nat. Biog., II. 136.

D. J. O'DoNOGHtTE.

Articles of Faith (Greek, ipBpov; Latin, articu- lus, joint), certain revealed supernatural truths such as those contained in the symbol of the Apostles. The terms were not used by the Fathers or by eccle- siastical writers in the early Middle Ages. St. Ber- nard and Ricliard of St. Victor employed them, the latter applying them to truths having God for their object and so explicitly stated as to compel assent. According to St. Thomas Aquinas, the article of faith is any revealed supernatural truth which is distinct in itself from other such truths but which unites with them to form the organic whole of Chris- tian teaching. Thus the articles of the Creed an- nounce truths which are in themselves distinct from one another but parts of a complete summary of the trutiis which have been revealed to help us to gain our last end. They are for Christian theology what fundamental principles are for a science. Not every revealed trutli is an article of faith, nor are theolo- gians agreed on what constitutes any truth an arti- cle of faith. Some would limit these articles to the contents of the Apostles' Creed. Others say that every truth defined by the Church, or in any other manner explicitly prot)osed for our belief, is an article of faith. De Lugo describes them as the principal or primary truths which are the basis of other re- vealed truths or principles. In the Catechism of the Council of Trent (p. 1 , c. 1, q. 4), the tniths of the Apostles' Creed are called articles "by a sort of simile frequently used by our forefathers; for as the menil)ers of the body are divided by joints (articuli), so also in the profession of faith whatever is to be