Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/841

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765

ARTVIN


765


ARUNDELL


basilica, ancient in origin, yet Christian in character, was misjudged by the Keniiissance on account of some excrescences, and ol)scured by the additions engrafted upon it by modern lacli of taste (op. cit., p. 230). Tnat the adiievements of our forefathers should be understood, recognized, and adapted to our own needs, is surely to be desired.

Otto Willmann.

Artvin, a Russian city in the tran.s-Caucasian province of Kutais, is .•iituated near Turltish Armenia on the left bunk of tlio Tchoruk, which flows into the Black Sea. In 1K94 it contained 5,900 inhabi- tants, mostly Armenian and Turkish. In Artvin and vicinity there are nine Arnienian-Catliolic churclics, four schools for boy.s and three schools for girls. The Gregorian Armenians liave five churches and two scliools. The Armcnian-Catliohi- Diocese of Artvin (Artuincnsis Armenorum) was estaliMshcd in ISoO by Pius IX for the I'nited Armenians in sDulljcrn Ru.ssia, and was first suffragan to the Metropolitan of Con- stantinople, afterwards directly subject to the Arme- nian-Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia, whose see is Con- stantinople. The first bishop wasTimotheus Astorgi (1850-58), who was succeeded by Antonius Halagi (1859) and Joannes Haptista Zacdiarian (187S). In 1878, Russia annexed the entire territory of this diocese and united it with Tiraspol. Up to the present time, Russia has prevented the appointment of a bishop and is now trj'ing to cause an apostasy among the Armenians. The diocese of Artvin num- bers aljout 12,000 Catliolics of the Armenian Rite; 25 mission priests (of whom 23 are natives); 30 churches and chapels; 22 primary schools with almost 900 pupils. The girls are instructed partly by the .Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed \'irgin Mary. The Catholics of the Latin Rite in the dio- cese of Artvin are subject to the regular jurisdiction of the Bishop of Tiraspol.

Joseph Lins.

Amndel, TnoM.\s, sixtieth Archbishop of Canter- burj', second son of Robert, Earl of Arundel and Warren, b. 1353; d. 19 February, 1414. In 1374, while only in his twenty-second year, he was pro- moted from the ardideaconry of Taunton to the See of Ely. Made chancellor, 24 October. 138f>, he was translated from Ely to York in 1388, and thence, by papal provision, to Canterbury, 25 September, 1396, when he resigned the chancellorship. In the second year after his translation he incurred the dis- pleasure of the King, Richard II, was attainted of nigh trea-son, and lianished, together with his brother, Richard Earl of .\rundcl, and the Duke of Gloucester. He retired, first to France, then to the papal court, where he was well received by Boniface IX, who conferred upon him the Archbishopric of St. Andrews. On the accession of Henrj' IV, Roger Walden, his successor in the primatial see, was declared a usurper, and Arundel restored, 21 October, 1399, Walden being translated to London. He is conspicuous as hav- ing taken a strong stand against the Lollards whose new doctrine he, in company with the bishops of the province, petitioned Rome to condemn, and on account of his sturdy assertion of Transubstantia- tion and the prerogatives and divine institution of the Papacy.

Godwin. De Praaulibus Anglia; Hook, Archbiihopa of Canterbury; Le Neve, EccUnatlical Dignitariet: I.yndwood Provinciau; Wilkinh, Concilia.

F. AVELING.

Anindell, Thomas, first Lord AnrNDELL op Wakdouu, b. 1560; d. at Oxford, 7 Novemlx>r, 1639. He was the son of Sir Matthew Anindell of Wardour Castle, Wiltshire. The Anindells were a very old Norman family settled in Cornwall and dating back to about the middle of the thirteenth century. Thoraas, first Lord Arundell of Wardour, was grand-


son of a Sir John Arundell, of the Anindells of Lan- heme, "the Great Anindells," a Catholic branch of the family. Sir John had become a Catholic (Dodd, Church History) through Father Corneliin, a native of the neighbouring town of Bodmin. Owing to his defence of Cornelius, Sir John Arundell was imprisoned for nine years in Ely Palace, Hol- bom. (Challoner. Memoirs of Missionary Priests, 1803.) Thomas, first Lord Arundell of Wardour, called "the Valiant," was strongly adverse to the Reformers and refused to attend Protestant services. Elizabeth committed him to prison in 1580. When he was freed, he travelled, and entered the Austrian service under Archduke Matthias, brother of Em- peror Rudolph II. He distinguished himself fighting against the Ottomans in Hungary, and at the siege of Gran, or Strigonium, 7 September, 1595, he was the first through the breach and, scaling the tower, plucked the Crescent thence and planted in its place the Imperial Standard. The Emperor created him and liis posterity Counts of the Holy Roman Empire, 14 December, 1.595. On his return to England the peers decided that no privilege or precedence should be shown to his title. James I, recognizing Anin- dell's deserts and loyalty, rewarded him by creating him a peer witli the style and title of Baron Anindell of Wardour, 1605. Charles I at the beginning of his reign forbade the new peer to bear arms, because he was a Catholic, though Thomas had contributed liberally to avert the danger of the Spanish Armada. Lord Arundell of Wardour died at the age of seventy- nine. His [xjrtrait, by Van Dyck, 1635, is at War- dour.

Thomas, second Lord Anindell of Wardour, suc- ceeded his father in 1639. In the trouble between Charles I and the Parliament, the House of Commons ordered Anindell's arrest, Novemljer, 1641, but he evaded capture, and when the royal standard was unfurled at Nottingham, 22 August, 1642, he raised a company of horse and fought for His Majesty's cause. He was wounded in battle, and died at Oxford. 1643. His wife, the heroic Lady Blanche Arundell, was the sixth dauglitor of Edward, Earl of Worcester, an admirable Catholic, and a discreet and loyal subject. She is known by her spirited defence of Wardour Castle, Wiltshire, during the absence of her husband. With only twenty-five men at her command, she withstood thirteen hun- dred rebels, under Sir Edward Hungerford and Colonel Strode, for eight daj's. When obhged to capitulate she did so on honourable terms, signed 8 May. 1643. She left the castle destitute, and was provided with lodging at Salisbury by Lord Hert- ford. She died at Winchester, 28 October, 1649, and was buried with her liusband at Tisbury.

Henry, third Lord Arundell of Wardour, b. 1606; d. 1694, was the sole male issue of Thomas, second Lord, and Lady Blanche Arundell. ' When he suc- ceeded to the title, in 1643, his wife and sons were prisoners, and Wardour Castle was in the hands of the Parliamentary forces under General Ludlow. To dislodge them, he sacrificed his castle by spring- ing a mine under it. He was subsequently wounded in several battles, his estates were sequestrated, and he was forced to leave the country'. When the monarchy was restored he recoverea his property by an expenditure of £35.000. In 1669 he was employed by Clifford in arranging the famous pre- liminaries of the secret treaty of Dover between Louis XIV and Charles II. But the king whom he had served so well almost suffered him to become a victim of the infamous Titus Oates, on whose jierjured statement Lord Arundell of Wardour was thrown into the Tower at the instance of the House of Commons, in October, 1678, with four other Catholic peers. During his confinement he wrote some poems, which were published under the title