Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/877

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by the Pope, first, as professor of Syriac at the Sapienza in Rome, and afterwards professor of hturgy, by Heiiodict XI\', who made him also meml)er of the ucadciny for historic research, just founded. His priticipal works are: (1) "Codex hturgicus eeclesia- universa' in XV hbros distributus" (Rome, 1749-0(i).

This vahiablc work has become so rare tliat a bookseller of Paris recently issued a photographic impression of it. (2) " De Sacris ritibus Di.s.sertatio" (Rome, 17.')7). (3) "Commentarius theologico- oanonicus crilicus de ccclesiis, earuni reverenliiV et asylo ;il(iue Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii" (Rome, ITdti); (1) " Disscrtatio de unione et communione ecclcsiastica" (Rome. 1770); {.'>) " Di.ssertatio de canonibus jxvnitenlialibus" (Rome, 1770); (G) " De ("athohcis scu Patriardiis ("halda-orum et Nestorian- orum commentarius historico-chronologicus", etc. (Rome, 177.5); (7) " De Synodo Diocesana Disser- tatio" (Rome, 1776); (8) A Latin version of Kbed- jesus's "Collcctio Canonum", pubhshcd by Cardinal Mai in his "Scriptoruni Veterum Nova Collectio" (pt. I, pp. vii. viii and 1-16S; pt. II, pp. 1-208, etc.).

.STBPH.\Ntis EvoDirs, or .\\v\v.\u. titular .\rchbishop of .\pama>a in Syria, b. in Syria 1707; d. in Rome, 1782; nephew of the two preceding brothers, and prt'fect of the Vatican Library after the death of J. S. .\.ssemani. His lifework was to assist his two uncles at the Vatican Library. He became a mem- ber of the Royal Society of London. His principal works are: (1) the .sixth volume of " Kphra>mi Syri opera omnia" (see above); (2) " Hibliothecip Meilicea- I^urentiana! et Palatince codicum manuscriptorum orientalium catalogus" (Florence, 1742); (.'{) ".\cta Sanctorum .Martyrum Orientalium et Occidentahum" (Rome. 1748). The first part gives the history of the martyrs who suffered during the reign of the Sa.s.sanian Kings of Persia: Sapor, Veranes, and others; (4) " Bibliothecse Apostolica; Vaticana? codiouni manuscriptorum catalogus," to be completed in four volumes in collaboration with his uncle. J. A. .\.sse- inani: Vol. I, Oriental manu.scripts; Vol. II. Greek; Vol. Ill, Latin; and Vol. IV, Italian. The first three volumes appeared in 17.50-69, but the fourth, of which only the first eiglity pages were printeil, was destroyed by fire in 1768; (5) "Catalogo della biblioteca Chigiana" (Rome, 1764).

Simeon, grand-nephew of the first and .second Assemanis, b. 17.52, in Tripoli, Syria; d. at Padua, Italy, 1821. He made his theological studies in Rome, and at the age of twenty-six visited Syria and Egypt. In 1778 he returned to Rome, and then ■went to Genoa, with the intention of going to America, but he was prevented. In 178.5 he was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the .seminary of Padua, and in 1807 transferred to the I'niversity of the same city, to fill the .same chair. He had many admirers and friends, such as Cardinal Borgia, the founder of the Muneo Bnrgiano at the College of the Propaganda, in Rome, the French Orientalist Sil- vestre de Sacy, and others. His works are: (1) "Sag- gio storico suU ' origine, culto, letteratura. e costumi <legli Arabi avanti Maonietto" (Padua, 1787); (2) "Mii.seo Cufico Naniano, illustrato ", in two parts (Padua, 17.S7-8S); (!}) "Catalogo dei codici mano- scritti orientali della biblioteca Naniana", in two parts (Padua, 17S7-02); (4) "Globus civlest is arabico- ruficus Veliterni musci Borgiani . . . illustratus, pra-missfi de Arabimi a-stronomia dissertatione" (Padua, 1790); (.5) "Se gli Arabi ebbero alcuna in- fluenza suir origine della poesia moderna in Imi- ropa?" (1807); (6) "Sopra le monefe Aralx> efligiate" <Padua, 1809). 0\ir author is also well known for his masterly detection of the literarj' imposture of VcUa, which claimed to be a history of the Saracens in SjTia.

Mai. .S'm;i(<irum Vrlrrum Norn CoUeetio. etr.. Ill, pt. II. I6*i; liioiiTaphie unurrtelle tmrienne ft moilrmr Inouvelle Edition— PariM, 1843). II. 337-339; ("ardaiii. Liber Ihrtaun

de arte poelicd Syrorum (Rome, 1874), 171-183; Diom. Liber coni utahouis contra Biicrrdotem loaevh David (Ueirut, 1870);;-.Si II \t K, littioufua Encyc, 1, 150-157, but enpeciully art. l>v .Nh.Mi.K III etl. of Rvalcncykloltadie fur prottntan- llnclir Thi.ilaui'- uiul Kirche (l-ciprig, 18«7). 11. 144-147, ». v.; I'Aiilsor III />!.■(. </( Ih'ot. ailh.. I., v.; I'friT in Dirt, darch. ihrit. •Idr lit. .V. V.

<'|.M1UIEI. OrS8.\NI.

Assemblies of the French Clergry, f|uin(iuennial representative meetings of the Clergy of France for the purpose of aiiportioning the lin:incial burdens laid upon the Church by the kings of France, and incidentally for other ecclesiastical purposes. — The Assemblies of the French (,'lergy {AxKimhli'cs du Clertji (/<■ Fninci) had a financial origin, to which, for that matter, may be traced the inception and es- tabli.shment of all delilwrative assemblies. Long before their establishment, however, the State had undertaken to impose on the Church her share of the public The kings of France, power- ful, needy, and at times imscrupulous men, could not behold side by side with the State, or within the State, a wealthy body of men, gradually extending their possessions throughout the kingdom, without being tempted to draw upon their coffers and, if need were, to pillage them. During the Middle Ages the Crusades were the occasions of frequent le\ie3 upon ecclesiastical possessions. The Dime Sala- dine (Saladin Tithe) was inaugurated when Philip Augustus (1180-122:5) united his forces with those of Richard of England to deliver Jerusalem from Saladin. At a later period the contributions of the clergy were increa,seci, and during the reign of St. Louis (123.5-70) we find record of thirteen sub- sidies within twenty years, while under Philip the Fair (128.5-1314) there were twenty-one tithes in twenty-eight years. It hius been estimated that the latter monarch recei\ed altogether from the clergy the ecjuivalent of 400.000,000 francs in the present currency (SSO,0()0,()(M)). The modern era brought no decrease in the taxes imposed on the Church. Francis I, for example (1.51.5-48), made incessant calls on the ecclesi;istical treasury. The religious wars stirred up by Protestantism furnished the French kings with pretexts for fresh demands upon the Church. In 1.560. the clergy held a con- vention at Poissy to consider matters of Church- reform, an occiision made famous by the controversy (CoWique de Poi.tsy) between the Catholic bishops and the Protestant ministers, in which the chief orators were the Cardinal of Lorraine and Theodore Beza. At this assembly the Clergy bound them- selves by a contract made in the name of the whole clerical body to pay the king 1,600,000 livres ($320,000) annually for a period of six years; they also bound themselves to restore to him certain estates and taxes that had been pledged to the Hotel de Ville of Paris for a (vearly) rcnir, or revenue, of 630,000 livres (?126.o6o). In other words, the clergy bound themselves to redeem for the king in ten years a capital of 7,.56O,0OO livres ($1,512,000). The French monarchs, instead of settling their debts, made fresh loans biised on this rente, or revenue, paid by the Church, iis if it were to be something permanent, .\fter lengthy discussions, the clergy as.sembled at Melun (1.579-80) consented to renew the contract for ten years, a measure des- tined to be repeated every decade until the French Revolution. 'I"he "A.ssemblies of the Clergy" were now an established institution. In this way the Church of France obtained the right of freely meet- ing and of free speech just when the meetings of the States-General (Elals-Gimrnux) were to be dis- continued, and the voice of the nation was to be hushed for a period of 200 years.

At a verj' early date, these assemblies adopted the form of "organization which they were to preserve until the French Revolution. The election of the