" F>pliemerkics Liturgioa'", which is still issued., Bnioiii, Joseph (b. in Piedmont, 1821), besides theological :inil liturgical writings, has published several philosophical works, the chief is " Dell' Essere e del t'onosccre" (Turin, 1877); he had previously issueii a large portion of it under the title ■' Delia Filosofia di Antonio Hosmini saggio di Giu- seppe Buroni" (1877-80). (3) Languages. — Led by their ministry to speak the languages of tlie nations they evangelized the Lazarists have issued divers works in or concerning these languages. Caulier, Philip .Ubert (b. in France, 1723; d. 1793), com- posed an abridged catechism in the language of Madagascar, and wrote a Malagasy grammar for the Antanosy dialect. Gonsalves, Joachim Al- phonsus, published among other works in the Chinese language, " Lexicon Magnum Latino-Simi- cum ostendens etymologiam, prosodiam et construc- tionem vocabulorum" (Macao, 1841, in folio). Vi- guier, Peter Francis (b. France, 1745; d. 1821), published " Elements of the Turkish Language, or Analytical Tables of the ordinary Turkish Language with developments" (Constantinople, Printing Press of the Palais de France, 1790, 4°). Coulbeau, John Baptist (b. in France, 1843), has published in the glez language or primitive Ethiopian tongue, the "Missal of the Ethiopian Rite (Kerew, Printing Press of the Catholic Mission, 1890) and other works. He also published other books in Armarigna, the present idiom of Abyssinia, for example " Dialogues on the Tilings of Faith" (Kerew, Printing Press of the Catholic Mission, 1891). Schreiber, Jules, compiled a manual of the Tigrai language spoken in Central and Northern .\byssinia (Vienna, 1887) and Gren, John (b. in Germany, 1842; d. 1907), " La Lengua Quichua", a dialect of the Republic of Ecuador (Freiburg, 1896, in 12mo). More than half a million Indians in Ecuador, says the author, understand no language but the Quichua. He also wrote the first grammar and dictionarj' of this language. Bedjan, Paul, a Persian Lazarist, has written and published many works for the use of his fellow countrymien. Dur- ing twenty years he printed more than forty volumes in the Syriac and Neo-Aramaic, reproducing almost all the ancient MSS. hitherto unpublished in the various branches of ecclesiastical science and history. The latest is the most curious and important, the hitherto unpublished autobiography of Nestorius, "Nestorius, Le Livre d'Heraclide de Damas (5dit6 par Paul Bedjan, Lazariste" (Leipzig, 1910, in 8°).
(4) Travels and Scientific Explorations. — Hue, (q. v.) Evariste - R^gis (b. in France, 1813; d. i860), published "Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China" (Paris, 1850, 2 vols, in 8°), which was immediately translated into many languages. Later he published a sequel, "The Chinese Empire" (Paris, 1854, 2 vols. 8vo), and finally "Christianity in Tibet, Tartary, and China" (Paris, 1854, 4 vols. 18mo). David, .Armand (b. in France, 1826; d. 1900), corre- sponding member of I'Institut de France, travelled in the East and Far East. Commissioned by the Museum of Natural History of Paris to make explora- tions, he enriched the collection by numerous dis- coveries. He wrote "Journal of Travel in Central China and in Eastern Tibet" which appeared in "Nouvelles Archives du Mus^'um", VIII, IX, and X, "Journal of my Third Tour of Exploration in the Chinese Empire" (Paris, 1875, 2 vols. 8"). Be- sides numerous studies edited by him, there are several works published at the expense of the French Government describing the scientific discoveries of David: "The Birds of China with Atlas of 124 plates" (Paris, 1877): " Planta' Davidians ex Sinarum Imperio par Frarichet " (Paris, 1884, 2 vols. 4°), etc. Boccardi, John Baptist, has published astronomical studies of observations made at the Vatican Observa- tory and at Catania. He is the director of the Royal
Observatory of Turin (I'.tlO). Many of his .studies have appeared in the " Bulletin Astronomiciue de I'Observatoire de Paris" 1898, 1899. See "Notices Bibliographiques sur les Ecrivains de la (/'ongrcgation de laMi.ssion" (Angouleme, 1878, 8"). The English edition of the "Annals of the Cong, of the Miss.", Nos. 38 and 39 (1903), contains in thirty closely printed pages a list of books published by the Lazar- ists in various languages.
V. Present Status. — The Lazarists in Europe. — The mother-house, the residence of the superior general of the whole congregation, is at Paris, 95 Rue de Sevres. This central residence is also a house of formation with its internal .seminary, or as it is often less accurately called, its novitiate and scholasticate. A secontl house of formation is established at Dax, a city a little south of Bordeaux. In 1900 there were about fifty establishments in France, missions, semi- naries, and colleges. Since 1902 and 1903 the greater number of these establishments had to be abandoned when a large number of the establishments of commu- nities were closed, and when congregations not author- ized by the State w ere suppressed. France has hitherto supplied almost exclusively subjects for the Laza- rists' missions in China, Persia, the Levant, Abys- sinia, and the different countries of South America. In Germany, where the Lazarists had been established since 1832, they were expelletl by the Kulturkampf (1873), and since then they have establishments on the frontier of their country in Belgium and Holland. There are establishments in Syria, and in Central America at Costa Rica. In Austria there are two centres of activity for the Lazarists, one at Gratz for the houses of Austria and Hungary, the other, Polish in language, at Krakow for the establishments of Galicia and Bukowina, and for the colonies of Polish emigrants to America. In Spain, where the works of the Lazarists are in a flourishing condition, the houses are divided into two provinces, Madrid and Barcelona. The Spanish Lazarists furnish to a great extent labourers for several of the old Spanish colonies, Cuba and Porto Rico, Mexico, and the Philippine Islands. Tliey were twice expelled from their country by the revolutions of 1835 and 1868. They have been recognized by the Governments since the Concordat of 1851. In Portugal where they had six houses before the political and religious revolution of 1835, they have gradually been restored both on the mainland and in the Madeira Islands, where they are engaged in their former works. The Congregation of the Mission in Italy has felt the political vicissitudes of that coun- try in the nineteenth century, the Napoleonic wars with their suppression of religious houses, the con- fiscation of ecclesiastical property by the Italian princes in 1848, 1860, and 1873. At the present time there are 38 houses divided into three pro\'inces, Turin, Rome, and Naples. As to Belgium and Holland, it is chiefly since the difficulties in France that the Laza- rists have secured in these countries houses for the missions and especially for the training of their young men. The congregation has taken up again work in Northern Africa, in Algiers. There is a vicariate Apostolic in southern Madagascar and an- other in Abyssinia, and there are establishments at Ale.xandria in Egypt. They have also founded schools in the Levant, Turkey in Europe, and Turkey in Asia. There are prominent colleges in Constan- tinople, in Smyrna, and in Antoura near Beirut. They have al.so other establishments for missions and education, near Constantinople, at Bebeck, in the Archipelago at Santorin, in Macedonia, Salonica, at Ca valla and at Monastir near Salonica; at Zeitenlik they maintain a seminary for the Bulgarian Rite, the hope for the religious regeneration of that country. In Syria they are engaged in the same work in various houses. In Persia wliere the Lazarists have had establisliments since 1840, and where, since 1842,