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a church had been opened two years before. This was the commencement of St. Vincent's College, Cape Girardeau. In 1893, the theological department of the Cape was transferred to the Kenrick Seminary in St. Louis directed by the Lazarists with Aloysius J. Meyer as superior. In 1 900 a preparatory seminary was added to the theological department in St. Louis. The Seminary of the Assumption of Bayou La Fourche was placed in the hands of the Lazarists by Bishop Blanc. It was destroyed by fire. Rebuilt in New Orleans it was not occupied until the Lazarists opened there the seminary of St. Louis, but the fewness of the candidates for the priesthood did not justify a separate institution and it was closed again in 1907. Since 1849 St. Stephen's Church in New Orleans with its schools, hospitals, and orphan asylum has been cared for by the Lazarists. They also have charge of St. Joseph's, established in 1858 and St. Catherine's, for the coloured people of the whole city.

Between the years 1842 and 1847 the Bishops of Cincinnati, Louisville, Philadelphia, and New York urged the visitor to take charge of their respective seminaries, to which by the advice of his council he consented. These seminaries remained in the charge of the Lazarists for a few years, but most of them were given up owing to the withdrawal of European Lazarists to their own land where religious disturbances had ceased, and the promotion of mem- bers to the episcopacy. The New York seminary, after its removal from La Fargeville to Fordham was accepted by the Lazarists at the request of Bishop Hughes. Father Anthony Penco, who was made superior, did not approve of the seminarians teaching in the college, so the community retired from the work. For elev-en years the Lazarists had charge of the diocesan seminary at Philadelphia. They had been invited there by Bishop Francis Patrick Kenrick. His former professor at the Propaganda, Father Torna- tore, presided for a time over the seminary. The community withdrew from the seminary, in 1854, when Father Thaddeus Amat (q. v.) the superior was made Bishop of Monterey, Cal. The College or Seminary of Our Lady of the Angels was founded in 1856 by Rev. John Joseph Lynch, who left it when called to become Bishop and Archbishop of Toronto. It became the Niagara University in 1883. Its deceased presidents have been Rev. John C'Reaiy (b. 1802; d. 1862), Rev. Thomas J . Smith, afterwards visitor, Rev. R. E. V. Rice (b. 1837; d. 1878), and Rev. P. V. Kavanaugh (b. 1842; d. 1899). The Immaculate Conception parish in Baltimore was founded by the Rev. Mark Anthony in 1850. He was succeeded by the saintly Father Joseph Giustiniani (b. 181 1 ; d. 1886) who built the present beautiful church and schools. In 1850 the parish at Emmitsburg, Md., was placed in charge of the Lazarists and there resided the Rev. Mariano Mailer, first director from St. Vincent's priests of the Sisters of Charity when Mother Seton's Sisters were affiliated to the central house in Paris. Father Mai- ler's successors in the office of director of the Daugh- ters of Charity of the province of the United States were Rev. Francis Burlando (b. 1814; d. 1873), 1853-1873; Rev. Felix Guedry (b. 1833; d. 1893), 1873-1877; Rev. Alexis Mandine (b. 1832; d. 1892), 1877-1892; Rev. Sylvester V. Haire, 1892-1894; Rev. Robert A. Lennon, 1894-1907; Rev. James J. Sul- livan, 1907. This province was divided in 1910, Rev. J. J. Sullivan becoming director of the western with headquarters at St. Louis, Mo., and the Rev. John P. Cribbins director of the eastern and residing at Emmitsburg, Md. St. Vincent's Church, German- town, was established in 1851 by Father Domenec, who was consecrated Bishop of Pittsburg in 1800. The mother-house for the United States was trans- ferred from St. Louis to Germantown in 1868. There magnificent buildings in Chelten Avenue have been erected, including a house of studies, an internal

seminary, and an apostolic school, as well as a beauti- ful church.

Father Philip Borgna laboured in Brooklyn at St. Mary's Church, Williamsburg, during the year 1843- 44. A later date, 1868, saw the beginnings of St. John the Baptist's Church and College, the growth of which has been constant. The first president was Father John Theophilus Landry (b. 1S39; d. 1899). The diocesan seminary of Brooklyn ( 1891 ) has been under the care of the Lazarists since its establishment. In 1865 Los Angeles college was opened. From 1875 in Chicago dates St. Vincent's Church and College, now De Paul University. In 1888 the province of the LInited States was divided; the western, with the mother- house at the old St. Mary's Seminary, Perryville, Missouri ; the eastern retaining as the newer mother- house, St. Vincent's Seminary, Germantown. In 1905 Holy Trinity College, with an especially fine equipment for engineering, was built at Dallas, 'Texas, and St. Thomas' Seminary at Denver, Col., in 1907. A mission house was opened at Springfield, Mass., in 1903 and another at Opelika, Alabama, 1910. Mission bands are also stationed at Germantown, Pa., and at Niagara, N. Y., in the East, and at St. Louis and Perryville, Mo., in the West.

Since Father Timon the \Tisitors have been: Rev. Mariano Mailer (b. 1817; d. 1892), 1847-1850; Rev. Anthony Penco (b. 1813 ; d. 1875), 1850-1855; Rev. John Masnou fpro-visitor] (b. 1813 ; d. 1893), 1855-1856, recalled to Spain and made visitor there; Rev. Stephen V. Ryan (b. 1825, d. 1896), 1857-1867, when he was made Bishop of Buffalo ; Rev. John Hay- den (b. 1831; d. 1872), 1867-1872; Rev. James Ro- lando (b. 1816; d. 1883), 1872-1879; Rev. Thomas J. Smith (b. 1832; d. 1905), 1879-1905. In 1888 the Rev. James McGill became head of the eastern province; at his resignation (1909), the Rev. P. McHale became visitor. In the West Father Smith's successors have been Rev. William Barnwell (b. 1862; d. 1906, a few months after his appoint- ment) and the present visitor the Rev. "Thomas Finney. The two provinces number over two hun- dred priests who have charge of si.x colleges, one pre- paratory seminary, two apostolic schools for students aspiring to become Lazarists, four theological sem- inaries, about fifteen churches, and about eighty lay brothers and scholastics. Lazarists from the Polish province have churches for their fellow coun- trymen, at Conshohocken and Philatlelphia, Penn., at Derby and New Haven, Conn., whence aKso they go to preach Polish missions. The Polish Lazarists are also preparing to build a college at Erie, Penn., 1910. Two Lazarists from Barcelona province in 1908 began work for the Spanish in Philadelphia, where they have a church and conduct night classes, and an employment agency. The establishments of the Laz- arists at Ponce and San Juan, Porto Rico, as well as those at Manila, Calbayog, Cebu, Jaro, and Nueva Ca- ceres in the Philippine Islands may be mentioned in connexion with the Lazarists of the United States. Abelly, Vie du Venerable Serviteur de Dieu, Vincent de Paul (Paris, 1664); Bovgwd, L'Histoire de Saint Vincent de Paul, tr Brady (New York, 1899); Mavnard, Saint Vincent de Paul, new edition, 4 vols. ; H6lvot. Histoire dee Ordres Re- ligieux et Mthtaires (8 vols., Paris, 1792): Dictionnaire des Ordres Rehgieux (.3 vols., Paris, 1848); Henrion, Tableau dc Contirt'iations Religieusea (Paris, lS:il); Piglet, Les M I l„iues Frantaises (Pana. 1^7 li \ fijnjl,.-< de la

I 1,1 Mission 1834-1910: th. <■ n. hilMu.Ger-

II 1.1 Polish editions, and lui ln' !i K r i ,,, 1894-

III 1/ de la Cnnmeii'ilwn r/, I,: \h n.n: l;.loone, \f,„l,ii,as,,ir. Wffinc (-1 vol , I'ui^. Isr.fil; Kavieu, /'itin (Pe- king. 1897); PosHCT, V'l. / 1/ /'...". (P.aris, 1881); Boyle. St. Vincent de Paul and Ifn I /'-,,'/ in Ireland, Scotland, and

Eniiland, 1638-l»0:i (I,( m. h m . I , IHuhlando]. Skdcfies

of the Life of T. : ; l.\ -' / -/. Andreis (Baltimore.

1861: enlargefi cli i . i ,, ,, i "im.; Ryan, Early Lazarial Missions and M I n ' I "^^7).

A complete hililu'L'i iih / i ; l -. !>. t. mihiI in the Annals of the Congregatian of the At ix.iion. No. 4(i (hinmit-sburg, Md., 1903). See also bibliography under Vincent de Paul. St.

B. Randolph.