in the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the ninetoenlh centuries, beginning in 17t)',». The his- toric California missions were twenty-one in nuiiiber, excluding branch foundations, extemling along the coast or at a short distance inland from San Diego in the south, to Sonoma, beyond San braneisco Bay, in the north. Besides these, two others, established in 1780 in the extreme south-eastern corner of the pres- ent state, had a brief existence of less than a year when they were destroyed by the Indians. As their period was so short, anil as they had no connexion with the coast missions, they will be treated in an- other place (.see Yuma Indi.vns).
I. Mission Sites. — The following are the twenty- one missions in order from south to north, with name of founder, location, and ilate of fountling. In several cases the mission was removed from the original site to another.inore suitable at no great distance. It will be noticed that the northward advance does not en- tirely accord with the chronological succession:
1. San Diego (de AlcaUl); founder, Fr. Junipero Serra, 1769. Indian name of site, Cosoy. At Old Town, suburb of present San Diego, in county of same name. Removed 1774 to Nipaguay (Indian name), north bank of San Diego, six miles above present city. 2. San Luis Key (de Francia): Fr. Fermin Francisco Lasuen, 1798. Indian name, Tacayme. Four miles up San Luis Rey River, south side, San Diego Co. (a) San Antonio de Pala, branch mission: Fr. Antonio Peyrd, 1816. At Pala, about 20 miles above, north side of same river, in same county. 3. San Juan Capistrano: Serra, Nov., 1776. Indian name, Sajirit or Quanis-savit. At present San Juan, Orange Co.
4. San Gabriel (Arcangel) : Serra, Sept., 1771. Indian name, Sibagna, or Tobiscagna. San Gabriel River, about ten miles east of Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co.
5. San Fernando (Rey de Espana) : Lasuen, Sept., 1797. Indian name, Pashecgna. At present Fer- nando, Los Angeles Co. 6. San Buenaventura: Serra, 1782. Indian name, Miscanaga. Ventura, Ventura Co. 7. Santa Barbara: Palou, 1786. Indian name, Taynayan. Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co. 8. Santa Ines: Tapis, 1804. Indian name, Alajulapu. North side Santa Inez River, about present Santa Inez, Santa Barbara Co. 9. Purisima Concepcion: Palou, 1787. Indian name, Algsacupi. Near pres- ent Lompoc, Santa Barbara Co. 10. San Luis Obispo (de Tolosa): Serra, 1892. Indian name, Tishlini. In present San Luis Obispo town and county. 11. San Miguel: Lasuen, July, 1797. Indian name Vahia (Vatica), or Chulam (Cholame). West bank Salinas River, at present San Miguel, San Luis Obispo Co. 1 2. San Antonio (de Padua): Serra, July, 1771. Indian name, Teshhaya, or Sextapay. East side San An- tonio River, about six miles from present Jolon, Mon- terey Co. 13. (Nuestra Seiiora de la) Soledad: Palou, Oct., 1791. Indian name, Chuttusgelis. East side Salinas River, about four miles from present Soledad, Monterey Co. 14. San C'arlos (Borromeo, de Monte- rey) , a/i'as Carmelo : Serra, 1770. Indian name (sec- ond site), Eslenes (Esselen?). First at present Monte- rey, but removed in same year to Carmelo River, a few- miles distant, Monterey Co. 15. San Juan Bautista: Lasuen, 24 June, 1797. Indian name, Popelout, or Popeloutchom. West side Saa Benito River, about present San Juan and .six miles from Sargent, in San Benito Co. 16. Santa Cruz: Palou, Sept., 1791. Indian name, Aulintac. Present Santa Cruz, Santa Clara Co. 17. Santa Clara (de Asis): Serra, 1777. Indian name, Tharaien. First established near Guada- lupe River, about head of San Francisco Bay. Re- moved in 1781 three miles to pre.sent site of ^Santa Clara, Santa Clara Co. 18. San Jo.s6: Lasuen, 11 June, 1797. Indian name, Oroysom. East of San Francisco Bay, about fifteen miles north of San Jos6 City near present Ir\'ington, in Alameda Co. 19. San Francisco (de Asfs), alias Dolores: Serra, Oct., 1776. Within
present limits of San Francisco City. 20. San Rafaei (.Vrcangel): Payeras, 1817. Indian name Awdniwi (Nanaguami). North of San Francisco Bay, at pres- ent San Rafael, Marin Co. 21. San Francisco Solano, a/j'a.s' Sonoma: Altimira, 1823. Indian name, Sonoma (?). North of San Francisco Bay, at present Sonoma, Sonoma Co.
II. TiuBEs AND Languages. — Nowhere in North or South America was there a greater diversity of lan- guages and dialects than in California. Of forty-six native linguistic stocks recognized within the limits of the t'nited States by philologists, twenty-two, or practically one-half, were represented in California, of which only six extended beyond its borders. Seven distinct linguistic stocks were found within the terri- tory of actual mission colonization, from San Diego to Sonoma, while in the border territory north and east, from which recruits were later drawn, at least four more were represented. As most of the dialects have per- ished without record, it is impossible to say how many there may have been originally, or to (-lifTcrentiate or locate them closely. As tribal organization such as existed among the Eastern Indians was almost un- known in California, where the rancheria, or village hamlet, was usually the largest political unit, the names commonly used to designate dialectic or local groups are generally merely arbitrary terms of con- venience. For the linguistic classification the princi- pal authorities are Kroeber, Barrett, and other ex- perts of the University of California.
1. Porno, or KulanajMyi, Stock. — The Indians of this stock bordered on the northern frontier of the mis- sion area, and although no mission was actually es- tablished in tlieir territory in the earlier period, num- bers of them w-ere brought into the missions of San Rafael anil San Francisco Solano. Broadly speaking, the Pomo territory included the Russian River and ad- jacent coast region with all but a small portion of the Clear Lake basin. Barrett has classified their numer- ous local bands and rancherias into seven dialectic divisions, but all probably mutually intelligible. Of their southern bands, some of the Gallinomero (or Kainomero), of lower Russian River, were brought into San Rafael mission and the Gualala also were represented either there or at Sonoma. The so-called " Diggers " of the present mission schools at L^kiah and Kelseyville are chiefly Pomo.
2. Yukian Slock. — The Yuki tribes were in four divisions, two of which were north of the Pomo terri- tory and therefore beyond the sphere of mission influ- ence. The two southern bodies, originally one, speak- ing one language with slight dialectic variations, and commonly known as Wappo (from Spanish guapo), oc- cupied (a) a small territory south of Clear Lake and east from the present Kelseyville; (b) a larger territory in- cluding upper Napa River and a portion of Russian River, and extending approximately from Geyserville to Napa. They were probably representetl at Sonoma mission, as they probably are also under the name of " Diggers " in the present mission school at Kelseyville.
3. Wintun, or Copehan, Slock. — This stock held all (excepting the Wappo projection) between the Sacramento River and the main Coast Range from San Pablo (San Francisco) and S\iis\ui Bays northwards to Mount Shasta, including botli banks of the river in its upper course. The various dialects are grouped by Kroeber into three main divisions or languages, of which the southern, or Patwin, includes all south from about Stony Creek, and possibly also those of Sonoma Creek on the bay. Indians of these southern bands were brought into the missions of Sonoma, San Ra- fael, and even San Francisco (Dolores) across the bay. At Sonoma mission, among others, we find recorded the Napa and Suisun bands. According to Kroeber the whole region of Putah Creek was thus left vacant un- til repopulated after 1S43 by Indians who had origi- nally been taken thence to Sonoma mission.