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Paris, 1865); Djunkovsky. Dirlionn. dcs Missions Calholiqufs (2 vols.. Paris, 1864); Hue, Lr Chrislianisme en Chine, en Tartarie et ou Tibet (Paris, 1857-58). tr. Hazutt (London, 1857; New York, 1SS7); CoRDlER, Relations de la Chine aver les puissances Hran- gires (Paris. 1901); Victok Bebnahdin de Kouen, Hist. univ. dea missions franciscaines (Paris. 1898); Wolferbtan, The Catholic Church in China from 1860-1907 (St. Louis. 1910); Enoelhardt. Missions and Missionaries of California (San Francisco, 1908); Campbell. Pioneer Priests of North America (2 vols.. New York, 1908-10); MoRicE. History of the Catholic Church in Western Canada (2 vols., Toronto, 1910); Casartelli, Catholic Missions ([x>ndon. 1891); Marshall. Christian Missions (London. 1862); Satow, The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan: 1591-1610 (London, 1888); DeSmet, Western Missions and Missionaries (New York, 1859); Idem, Oregon Missions (New York, 1847); Jesuit Relations (Cleveland. 1896-1901). See also in Vacant, Diet, de thiol, calh. (Paris. 1903—1. Le Roy, s. v. Afri(iue, 1.528-50; Andr^.s. v. Amfrique, I. 1051-74; Pisani. s. v. Asie. I, 2079-2119; Fournet, 8. v. Cana'la. II, 1453-92.

Mission Statistics: Krose, Katholisehe Missionsslalistik (Frei- bure, IWIS); Alias des Missions de la .focitli des Missions Elran- i7,Vr. 'l'-.ri«, is.if: K.ilt'nl,.;-!,,-., M,.~i.„ien (Freiburg. 1873);

A- ' ' ■ ' " I ' ,1' .1 in luito il mondo (Home,

]si I I ' ! ' :■ I't/raphie und -.Statistik

(Siii^.i,, , III , \\i.>.ir, || , : :; um catholicus (FreihuTg,

l&'.Hi, aii.l ihu Lailiulir ilirnlwiicd lur llif various countries.

Publications bv Rcligioua Orders; Conspectus omnium mis- sionum Ordinis Fratrum Minoruman. 1B04-O5 (Quaracchi. 1905); Annales de la Congregation de la Mission (Paris, annually) ; Mis- sions Beiges des Pires de la Compagnie de Jisus (Brussels) (con- tinuation of the Precis hisioriques) ; Annales Apostoliques de la Congregation rfu S. Esprit et du S. Cceur de Marie (Paris. 1886 — ) ; St. Joseph's Foreign Missionary Advocate (London, quarterly); SoeiUe des Missions Etrangires (Paris, 1876 — ); Analecia Ordinis Minorum Cappucinorum (Rome, annual) ; Monalshefle U. L. Frau vom heiligsten Herzen Jesu (Hitrup, 1884—) ; Missions en Chine et au Congo (Bruxelies. 1889—); El Correo .'iino-Annamila. Corres- pondencia del Sagrado Orden de Predicadores en Formosa, China y Tung-King (Manila, annual).

Thomas Kennedy.

Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada. — The French discoverers of Canada did not fail to impress the aborigines they met with a vague idea of the re- ligion they professed. Thus, on .3 July, 15.34, when Jac<|ues Cartier reached Baie des Chaleurs, he pre- sented the Indians with prayer beads, and shortly afterwards erected a large cross with the inscription "Vive le Roi de France", thereby combining patriot- ism with religion. In his second expedition (1535) he was accompanied by two chaplains, who, of course, could not impart much instruction to the Eskimos, Micmacs, Algonquins, and Hurons with whom they came into contact, yet must have indicated in some way the interest the newcomers took in their spiritual welfare. Moreover this important voyage ultimately resulted in the conversion and baptism of Donnacona, the Quebec chief kidnapped to France by the discov- erer. Likewise, when the Sieur de Monts established his colony (1604) in what was to become known as Acadia, he had with him priests who soon turned their attention to the surrounding tribes. In the course of time a few Micmacs received baptism (1610), and their companions ever manifested the greatest attach- ment for the compatriots of their missionaries. Two priests, Father Pierre Biard and Edmond Mass6, left Dieppe for Port Royal (26 January, 1611). and started their ministrations among the natives by a wise show of prudence, which some were tempted to regard as an excessive dilatoriness in admitting into the Church. Four years later more important missions were commenced on the arrival at Quebec, then founded seven years, of T'athers Denis Jamay, Jean Dol- beau, and Jo.seph Le Caron, Recollects, accompanied by a lay brother. While the first-named remained at the French fort. Father Dolbeau went to instruct the Mont;igiiais who repaired to Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay, and Father Le Caron went to the Hurons in the West. Champlain, in order to secure the friendship of the hitter, the most numerous of the Indian bands in his vicinity, deemed it good policy to their cause against tiieir invet- erate enemies, the powerfvil Iroquois of the South. This step eventually embroiled the French colony in incessant ho.stilities. Well meant though it undoubt- edly was, and perhaps necessary under the circum- stances, the French leader's intervention in the inter-

tribal polit ics of the natives likewise resulted in their paying more licetl to the war songs ami the satisfaction of their passions than to the question of their spiritual advancement. Le (laron worked faithfully, evangel- izing the savages and paving the way for other priests by the preparation of a dictionary of the Huron language. Having made a trip to France, he returned (1623) with Father Nicholas Viel and Brother (iabriel Sagard, the future historian of the early Catholic missions in Canada.

Yet the results of the Recollects' labours were but indifferent. So these religious generously yielded their places to the Jesuits, who reached Quebec on 19 June, 1625, the first to arrive being Fathers J<5r6me Lalemant, E. Masse, and Jean de Brebeuf. Father Masse had already laboured among the Micmacs of what is now Nova Scotia. He renewed his exertions in their midst, while Br6beuf succeeded Le Caron at the head of the Huron mission, whither he was accom- panied by three other priests from France (1626). One of these, a zealous Franciscan, F'ather de la Roche Dallion, directed his steps towards the Neutral nation, on which he could make no impression. He finally left (1627), while Brebeuf's Jesuit companion had also to return East in the course of the same year. Br(5beuf laboured heroically amidst the most dis- couraging apathy, if not hostility, of the Hurons. In 1633, after a temporary absence from his post, he returned West with Fathers Antoine Daniel and Ambroise Devost. Incredible hardships led them to the village of Ihonatiria, where they met a pleasant reception. Thence they visited hamlet after hamlet, teaching and exhorting the Indians, at first with no very great success. In the East Fathers Dolbeau and Jamay, with Brother Duplessis, were displaying their zeal on liehalf of the roving Montagnais and Algonquins of the .Saguenay, Ottawa, and Lower St. Lawrence. In 1636 Father Dolbeau had even ex- tended his activities to the outlying bands of the Labrador Eskimos. Thus were missions established at Tadoussac for the Montagnais; at Gasp6 for that tribe and the Micmacs ; for the latter alone at Miscou, New Brunswick, and at Three Rivers for the Montag- nais and the Algonquins. As a rule, those Indians, though lower than the Hurons in the social scale, showed themselves more amenable to Christian ideals.

To the west of these, missionary operations were thenceforth to be concentrated chiefly with a view towards the conversion of tribes of the Huron confederacy. By the end of 1635 Fathers Daniel anc-1 Devost, going to Quebec, met two priests proceeding to tTie north, and at Three Rivers Father Isaac Jogues, newly arrived from France. This missionary soon after left with a party of Hurons with whom he was to make his apprenticeship of the hardships in store for him. From the central mission ' of St. Joseph, or Ihonatiria, some twenty-eight towns were visited, the inliabitants of which proved as fickle as they were superstitious. Hence continual dangers for the missionaries nearly culminated in their death at the hands of those for whose salvation they were devoting themselves. In 1638 there were nine priests working zealously in thirty-two villages of some twelve thousand souls. Gradually they estab- lished the residences of the Conception, St. Mary's, and St. Joseph's, named after the one at Ihonatiria. Thence they visiteil the Petuns (1()39), and in 1641 Fathers Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues went among the Ottawas. Then, smallpox ha\'ing made its appearance among the Hurons, fresh dangers ensued for the missionaries, ever considered the cause of such visitations. They now turned their attention to the Neutrals, a powerful nation .settled on the penin- sula between Lakes Erie and Ontario, where they experienced new insults, and met with very few consolations (1640^1). Though they thus visited eighteen villages, trying to win over the people by