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bishop, the Right Rev. Luis Penalver y Cardenas, who arrived in New Orleans 17 July, 1795. From 1792 to 1800 the parish priest of Mobile was the Rev. Constantine McKenna, and its last incumbent under Spanish rule, the Rev. Vincent Genin.

Bishops. — (1) Michael Portier, b. at Mont- brison, France, 179.5; d. at Mobile, 4 May, 1859. He came to the United States 4 September, 1817. Com- pleting his studies at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md., he was ordained priest by Bishop Dubourg at St. Louis (1818), and eight years later, in the same city was consecrated titular Bishop of Olcno by Bishop Rosati, and became first \icar Apostolic of the new Vicariate of Alabama and the Floridas. At the time of his accession he was the only clergyman in the vica- riate and had practically only three congregations with churches, Mobile, .\la., and the old Spanish cities of St. Augustine, Fla. (founded 1565), and Pensacola, Fla. (founded 1696). The first priest who came to his assistance was the Rev. Edward T. Mayne, a student of Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg", Md., sent by Bishop England of Charleston, to take charge of the deserted church of St. Augustine. Bishop Portier be- gan his administration by riding through his vicariate and visited Pensacola, Tallahassee, and St. Augus- tine, offering the Holy Sacrifice, preaching, and admin- istering the Sacraments as he went. He sailed for Europe (1829) in quest of assistants, and returning with two priests and four ecclesiastics, found the vica- riate raised to the Diocese of Mobile. His cathedral was a little church twenty feet wide by fifty feet deep, his residence a still smaller two-roomed frame structure. By 1850 there were churches and congre- gations in Mobile, Spring Hill, Summcrville, Moimt Vernon, Fish River, Pensacola, 'Tuscaloosa, and Mont- gomery.

He was somewhat relieved in the same year by the detachment of the eastern portion of Florida and its annexation to the newly-created See of Savannah, Ga. To add to his reUef the new cathedral of the Immacu- late Conception, built mainly through the untiring efforts of the Rev. J. McGarahan, was finished at a cost of over eighty thousand dollars, and consecrated 8 December, 1850. About 1830 Bishop Portier estab- lished Spring Hill College and Seminary, at the head of which was the Rev. Mathias Loras until he was con- secrated Bishop of Dubuque (10 December, 1837) by Bishop Portier, who also consecrated another presi- dent of Spring Hill, the Rev. John S. Bazin, third Bishop of Vincennes, 24 October, 1847. Spring Hill College, for a time in charge of the feudist Fathers, was taken over by the Jesuit leathers (1S46) and has since been managed successfully by them. Bisho]) Portier held there a diocesan synod (19 Januarj-, 1835). In 1833 he secured from the Visitation con- vent, Georgetown, a colony of nuns who established in Mobile a house and academy, which is in a very flourishing condition. He brought the Brothers of the Sacred Heart from France (about 1847), and the Sisters of Charity from Emmitsburg, Md., to manage orphan asj'hims for boys and girls respect- ively. One of his last acts was the foundation of an infirmary at Mobile conducted by the Sisters of Charity.

(2) John Quinlan, second Bishop of Mobile, b. in County Cork, Ireland, 19 October, lS2fi; d. at Mo- bile, 9 March, 1883. He came to (he United Stales, 1844, studied for the priesthood in Mt. St.. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md., ami was onlaincd bv Archbishop Purcdl ( is."))!), witli a fciliiw s( udciil , Hicli- ard Gilmour, afterwards s<'coiiil lSi.slio|i ui CIe\el.-ind. He was con.secraled Bishop of .M(il)ile, 4 Dee., 1S5'.I, by Archbishop Blan(^ in St. Louis' cathedral. New Or- leans, La. In his diocese he found twelve churches and fourteen schools for which he had only eight secu- lar priests, and he therefore brought from Ireland eleven young candidates for the priesthood. Two of

the priests who came to Bishop Quinlan at this time are zealous workers in the diocese to-day, the Very Rev. C. T. O'Callaghan, D.D., V.G., pastor of St. Vih- cent's church. Mobile, several times administrator of the diocese, and the Very Rev. D. Savage, D.D., jias- tor of St. Peter's church, Montgomery, a member of the bishop's council. Bishop Quinlan's administra- tion fell upon the stormy days of internecine strife. After the battle of Shiloh, he hastened on a special train to the blood-stained battle-ground and minis- tered to the temporal and spiritual wants of North and South. After the war diocesan activities were crippled. Nevertheless, besides repairing ruined churches. Bishop Quinlan built the portico of the Mo- bile cathedral, founded St. Patrick's and St. Mary's churches in the same city, and established churches in Huntsville, Decatur, Tuscurabia, Florence, Cullman, Birmingham, Eufaula, Whistler, and Toulminville. April, 1876, Bishop Quinlan invited the Benedictines from St. Vincent's Abbey, Pa., to the diocese, and they settled at Cullman. The first abbot of the new settle- ment was the Rt. Rev. Benedict Menges, O.S.B., suc- ceeded (1905) by Rt. Rev. Bernard Menges, O.S.B., under whose capable management the monastery and college are progressing and extending their influence considerably.

(3) Dominic Manucy, third Bishop of Mobile, b. in St. Augustine, Fla., 20 December, 1823; d. at Mobile, 4 December, 1885. He was educated at Spring Hill College, and ordained (18.50) by Bishop Portier, and for twenty-four years laboiued in Montgomery and Mobile. He was consecrated at Mobile (S Dec, 1874), Bishop of Dulma, and appointed vicar Apostolic of Brownsville, Te.x., and was transferred to the Diocese of Mobile (9 March, 1884), without being relieved, however, from his duties as vicar Apostolic, but find- ing the burden too great he resigned and was ap- pointed to the titular see of Maronea.

(4) Jeremiah O'Sullivan, fourth Bishop of Mo- bile, b. in County Cork, Ireland, 1844; d. at Mobile, 10 Augast, 1896. He came to the United States, 1803, entered St. Charies College, ElHcott City, Md., whence he proceeded to St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- more, Md., was ordained priest (June, 1868) by Arch- bishop Spalding, and consecrated Bishop of Mobile (20 Sept., 1885), by Cardinal, then Archbishop, Gib- bons. The present towers of the Mobile cathedral were built by Bishop O'Sullivan, who successfully strove to restore the ruined financial status of the dio- cese. A gifted administrator, an admired orator, an extremely zealous and holy bishop. Bishop O'Sullivan travelled and laboured unceasingly in the diocese, and left to posterity a monument of noble results, temporal and spiritual, quietly and unostentatiously achieved.

(5) Edward Patrick Allen, fifth and present Bishop of Mobile, was born in Lowell, Mass., 17 March, 1853, and educated at Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md., where he was ordained priest by Becker, 17 Dec, 1881. He was appointed president of Mt. Si. Mary's (1SS4), and filled that office most acceptably until his consecration as of Mobile, by Cardinal Gibbons, in the cathedral, Baltimore, Md. (16 May, 1897). Under the able and prudent management of Bishop Allen, the diocese has advanced with great strides, and is still developing at a rapid gniuili. .Maiiv eliiirelics and missions have been creeled, hospitals, oriiliananes, and seliocils eslab- lislied, tlie number of priesis more than doubled, and iMjnsiderabli' pro|)erl y acquired with a vU:w to the further development <if his rajiidly increasing charge. The diocese was .sorely tried Ijy a fearful storm and tidal wave (Sc^pt.. 1900). Many clim-ehes either totally or partially destroyed have been rebuilt, or repaired. But the complete results of Bishop Allen's prosperous administration are best noticed by a comparison between the standing of the dioces?