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In 1800 the tribe was still loosely estimated at 2000 warriors or over 6000 souls. They are now reduced far below that number, but retain their tribal or- ganization and habits, though no longer hostile, and range generally along the western banks of the Parana. The best study of their language is Father Tavolini's ' ' Introdueoi6n al Arte Moco vi " . (See also


Brinton, American Race (New York, 1S91); Ch.irlevoix, Hist, of Paraguay, tr. (2 vols., London, 1769) ; Dobrizhoffer, Ac- count of the Abipones (3 vols., London, 1822); Hervas, Catalogo de las Lenguas, I (Madrid, 1800); d'Orbigny. L' Homme Americain (3 vols., Paris, 1839); T.wolini, Introduccion al Arte Mocovi in BibHoteca Linguistica del Museo de la Plata: Seccion del Chaco, I (La Plata, 1S93).

James Mooney. ModaUsm. See Monarchi.vxism.

Modena, Archdiocese of (Mutinbnsis), in cen- tral Italy, between the rivers Seochia and Panaro. The city contains many fine buildings. The Roman- esque cathedral, begun in 1099, consecrated by Lucius III in 1184, bears on its interior facade scenes from the Old and from the New Testament sculptured in white marble, and the high altar possesses a Purifica- tion by Guido Reni; the inlaid work of the choir, by the Lendinara brothers (146.5), is very beautiful; in the belfry, called the Ghirlandina, is kept the famous wooden pail taken from the Bolognese after the battle of Zappolino (132.5); this pail is the subject of the heroic-comic epic of Tassoni , " La Secchia Rapita " ; the pulpit is a noteworthy work of .4rrigo del Campione. Notable churches of Modena are San Agostino, which contains the tombs of the historians Sigonius and Muratori; San Pietro, with its beautiful specimens of the art of Giambellini, Dossi, and Francia; San Ste- fano della Pomposa, of which Muratori was provost, and others, all rich in works of art. The magnificent Ducal Palace, built in 1635 by Duke Francesco I, ac- cording to the plans of Avanzini, besides a valuable gallery of pictures, contains frescos by Franceschini, Tintoretto, Dossi, and others, and a library with more than three thousand manuscripts. The Royal, Com- munal, and Capitular archives possess many impor- tant documents. The university was founded 1)\ Duke Francesco III in 1738, but Modena, as early as 1182, had a studium generale which rivalled that of Bologna. The citadel, pentagonal in shape, dates from 1635; its walls and bastions were transformed into a pubUc promenade in 1816. There has been a military school for infantry and for cavalry in the royal palace of Modena since 1859; it was estab- lished by the last duke, Francesco V. The various beneficent institutions of this city are united in the Opera Pia Generale.

At the time of the GalUc War, Mutina, the Latin name of Modena, was already in the power of the Ro- mans, who were besieged there in 223 B. c. A Roman colony was taken from Modena, 234 b. c, and a dec- ade later, the town was in the power of the Ligurian.s for a year. It was there, also, that Spartacus de- feated the consul Cassius in 71 b. c. The famous hel- ium Mutinense (42 B. c.) decided the fate of the repub- lic at Rome. During the Empire Modena was one of the most prosperous cities in Italy, but in the war between Constantine and Maxcntius, the city was be- sieged, and fell into great decadence until 698, when it was revived by King Cunibert.

Charlemagne made it the capital of a line of counts, whose authority, however, was before long eclipsed by that of the bishops, one of whom, St. Lodoinus, in 897 surrounded the city with walls, to protect it against Hungarian incursions, while Bishop Ingone was formally invested with the title of count by Em- peror Conrad I. Later, Modena was a possession of the Countess Matilda, after whose death (1115) the city became a free commune, and in time joineil the Lombard League against Barbarossa. In the strug-

gle between the popes and Frederick II Modena was Ghibelline, and in conflict with the Guelph cities; nevertheless, it harboured a strong Guelph party, under the leadership of the Aigoni family, while the Ghibellines were led by the Grasolfi. In 1288, to put an end to internal dissensions, Modena gave its alle- giance to Obizzo II of Este, Lord of Ferrara, who also became master of Reggio in 1291. After the death of his son Azzo VHI (1308), Modena became free again, but lost a part of its territory. On the arrival of Henry VII, the town received an imperial vicar; in 1317, it welcomed a pontifical legate, choosing later for its lord John of Bohemia, while, in 1336, it was ceded by Manfredo Pio of Carpi to Obizzo III of Este and Ferrara in whose family it remained until 1859. Among his successors were Nicolo III, who recov-


ered Reggio and the Garfagnana for Modena. Borso, a natural son of Nicolo III, received the title of Duke of Modena from the emperor in 14.52, and later that of Duke of Ferrara, from Paid II. In the sixteenth century, in the palace of the Grilh^nzoni family, there flourished an academy of letters. The cily submitted to Julius II in 1510, but was restored to the Duke of Parma in 1530 by Charles V at the death of Alfonso II; however, in 1597 Ferrara returned to immediate dependency upon the Holy See, but Modena, with Reggio and its other lands, as a fief of the Empire, passed to Cesare, cousin of Alfonso II.

From that time a new era began for Modena, hc^nce- forth the home of a court devoted to the arts and let- ters, and solicitous for the public weal. The son of Cesare, III, after a reign of only one year (1.529), became a Capuchin monk in the convent of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, founded by him, and died in 1614. .Mfonso IV, in 1662, was succeeded by the young Francesco II, whose regents were his mother Laura and his great-uncle Cardinal Hinaldo. He built the Ducal Palace and the citadel :ui(l :idded Coroggio to his territory. As Francesco II died with- out progeny (1658), Modena came into the possession of his uncle Rinaldo, a cardinal also, who married