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Sn any other part of Spain, has boon erected over his grave. His memory is venerated, and the faithful visit his toml). The convent of the Alcantarinos (Franciscans of the reform of St. Peter of Alcdntara), founded in 1731, is now used iis barracks. The court-house (l.')S4) and the seminary are among the principal buildings of Mondonedo.

The present seminary buildinji, in the IIuert;us del Torrill6n, was built by Bishop ,Ios6 Francisco do Losada in 1770-75. Mondonedo, wliich until 1S3G, was the capital of the province, numbers among her dis- tinguished sons the teacher Pachcco Febrero, author of "Galeria de Escribanos", Jos6 Cayetano Suaces, Bishop of Palencia; Luc;is Miranda, author of the "Teatro de Prelados de la Iglesia de Mondonedo", and the sculptor Castro, designer of the inspiring figure of Saint Francis in the cathedral. Bishop Maiuiel Xavarrete wrote a long history of Mondonedo and its bishojjs. The present ( UtlO) "Bishop of Mon- donedo, Don Juan Jos6 Soles y l'"ernandez, b. at Oviedo, 1848, was consecrated on 26 May, 1907.

Fi.oREZ, Espafla Sagrtida, XVIII (2nd ed., Madrid, 1789) ; Vi- LL.\MiL, Cr^nica de la Provincia de Lugo (Madrid. 1867) ; MuRoriA, Espatla, sus monumentos y arles: Galicia (Barcelona, 1888); DE LA FuENTE, Historia echaidatica de Espafia (Barcelona, 1855).

Ram6n Ruiz Amado.

Mondovi, of (Montisregalis), in Pied- mont, province of Cuneo, northern Italy. The city is built upon three hills, at a height of about 1600 feet above sea-level, and dates from the year 1000; but the suburb of Bref), the name of which recalls the Bredo- lensis colony mentioned in a Roman inscription found in that neighbourhood, had a castle in the time of Charlemagne. The town, called Monsvici, also Mon- teregale, was under the bishops of Asti until 1198, when it established itself as a commune, but was com- pelled to struggle against the bishops of Asti, the marquesses of Saluzzo and of Monferrato, and the counts of Savoy, in turn recognizing and shaking off the suzerainty of one or another of those lords. The commune maintained a war against the marquesses of Civa (1240-50), and finally, Bressano di Vico, a pow- erful lord in ]\Iondovi, attempted to make himself master of the city, which submitted to Charles of Anjou (1260), and from that time, with some inter- ruptions, remained under the protection of the kings of Xaples, until 1366. In 1396, having again changed lords several times, it came under the dominion of the Savoyard lords of Achaia, and in 1418, under that of the dukes of Savoy, in whose possession it remained. In 1476 and in 1533, the inhabitants of Mondovi at- tempted to give their allegiance either to the Marquess of Monferrato or to the Duke of Mantua, and the French contested for its possession with the imperial- ists (1.536-43), and with the house of Savoy (1543-59). The city was at war with the Duke of Savoy for the salt monopoly (1678-99). Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese near Mondovi (1796), thereby assuring his way through the valley of the Po, and in 1799 it was pillaged by the French.

It was the birthplace of the pious Cardinal Bona, of the celebrated physicist Beccaria, and of Marquess Ormea. a statesman of the eighteenth century. Its cathedral contains paintings by Giulio Romano", Cam- biaso, and others. The residence of the bishop is one of the noblest palaces in Italy. In the church of la Missione there are frescoes by the Jesuit Pozzi. Outside the city is the sanctuary of the Ma- donna del Pilone. dating from the fourteenth century, but finished later (1730-49). The palace of the counts of San Quintino contained the first printing-office in Piedmont, and was the seat of a imiversity (1.560- 1719) founded by Duke Emmanuel Philibert, the first institution of its kind in Piedmont. The city, at part of the Diocese of Asti, became the seat of a bishop, suffragan of the Archbishop of Milan, but, since 1515, Turin has been its metropolitan. In 1817,

the territory of Cimeo was detached from the See of Mondovi, and made a diocese. The first of Mondovi was Damiano Zavaglia, a zealous and peace- loving prelate; among his successors were Percivallo di Palma (1129), .\madeo Romagnaiio (1197), who reconstructed the cathedral (IS.'JO); Michele Ghislieri, O.P. (1.550), later Pope Pius V; Cardinal Vincenzo Lauro (l.')t)6), founder of the seminary, during whoso incumbency the cathedral and other churches were torn down to make room for the citadel; Giovanni Battista IsnarcU (1697), who restored the episcopal palace and the church of St. Dalmazio; Carlo Felice Sanmartino (1741), founder of the new seminary, and Giovanni Tommaso Ghilardi, O.P. (1842), a very pious and charitable man. The city contains 145 pari.shes, with ITO.IMIO failhful, 6 religious houses of women, 10 educatiuiud cstublishments for boys and 15 for girls; it has three Catholic newspapers.

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d' Italia (Venice, 1887), XIV; Grassi, Memorie kistoriche della chiesa vescovile di Monteregale (Turin, 1785) : Della Rocca, Le Storie delV antica cittd. di Monteregale ossia Mondovi (2 vols., Turin, 1894-99).

U. Benigni.

Mone, Franz, historian and archa;ologist, b. at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; d. at Karlsruhe, 12 March, 1871. He attended the gym- nasium at Bruchsal and in 1814 entered Heidelberg, where in 1817 he was appointed tutor (Privatdozcnt) in history, in 1818 secretary of the university hbrary, in 1819 extraordinary, and in 1822 ordinary, professor, and in 1825 head of the university library. From 1827 to 1831 he was professor at Louvain. On his re- turn to Baden he edited for a period the "Karlsruher Zeitung"; he became in 1835 archivist and director of the General National Archives at Karlsruhe, and re- tired in 1868. By his great diligence and tireless en- ergy he acquired extensive knowledge. His works on early history (" Urgeschichte des badischen Landes", 2 vols., 1845; " Untersuchungen tiber die gallische Sprache", 1851; "Ccltische Forschungen", 1857) suf- fer from his tendency to trace everything possible to a Celtic origin. More important are his works on literary history, which include: "Einleitung in das Nibelungenlied" (1818); "GeschichtedesHeidentums im nordlichen Europa" (2 vols., 1822-3); "Otnit" (1821) ; "Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der deutschen Literatur und Sprache" (1830); "Unter- suchungen zur Geschichte der deutschen Heldensage" (1836); "Uebersicht der niederlandischen Volkslitera- tur alterer Zeit " (1838). In the "AnzeigerfiirKunde desdeutschen Mittelalters" (1835-9), hecallsattention to a great mass of unknown materials. Of great value for the history of the drama are his editions of "Alt- deutsche Schauspiele" (1841) and "Schauspiele des Mittelalters" (2 vols., 1846). His works, "Lateinische und griechische Messen" (1850) and "Lateinische Hymnen" (3 vols., 1853-5), advanced the knowledge of liturgy and ecclesiastical poetry, and offer impor- tant liturgical documents not published elsewhere. For the historv of his native country the following are use- ful: "Badisches Archiv" (2 vols., 1826-7); "Quellen- sammlung der badischen Landesgeschichte" (4 vols., 1848-67); the second volume of the "Episcopatus Constantiensis" of Neugart (1862), and, most particu- larly, the extraordinarily rich and varied "Zeitschrift fiir die Geschichte des Oberrheins" (21 vols., 1850- 68), which was founded by Mone, and in which most of the articles during these early years were from his pen. It has been continued since then by the General Archives and by the Historical Commission of Baden. His industry and zeal in collecting were very praise- worthy, although he was sometimes deficient in accu- racy and critical judgment; in his works the econom- ico-historical interest is always in the foreground. He was an earnest and pious Catholic, and took in the Baden ecclesiastical-political strife during the for- ties, publishing the two aggressive anonymous pam-