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Adam (1 June, 1323), John of Cora (1329), and others were tlie incumbents, down to Thomas de Abaraner (19 Dec, 142o).

ChaRatai died in 1241, and was replaced by liis grandson Kara Ilulaku. About 1321, under Kabak, the reahn of Chagatai was divided into two parls; Mavanl-un-Xahr, or Transoxiana, and MoghuHstan, or Jatah. About fifteen khans ruled Transoxiana, while confusion and discord were prevalent, until the great Timur conquered the land and restoreil order in 1370 (,\. H. 771). The first ruler of Moghulistan (1321) was ls;in Ruglia Khiln; after the death of Sultan Ahmt-d Khan (1501) a state of anarchy prevailed in the country until Sultan Mansur, the eldest son of Ahmed, established his authority at Aksu, Turf an, etc., and created the Khanate of Uighuristdn, while the Kirghiz in the steppes, having elected khans, formed the Confederation of Kazak-l'zbegs, and Sultan Said Khan, third son of Ahmed, established a klianate in Kashgar and the western provinces (see Turkestan).

From Juji, the eldest son of Jenghiz Khan, descended the following dj-nasties of khans: (1) Kipchak, 1224- 1502; (2) Astraklian, 1466-1554; (3) Great Bulgaria, 1224-1438; (4) Kazan, 1438-1552; (5) Kasimof, 1450-16S1: (6) Crimea, 1420-1783; (7) Nogais, 1224- 1301; (8) Kazdk-Uzbegs, 1427-1830; (9) Turan and Tinmen, 122.5-1659; (10) Tiumen and Sibir, 1301- 15SS; (11) Kharezen, 1515-1805; (12) Mdvarii-un- Nahr, 1500-1796.

C.\THOLic ^IissiGNS. — In 1838, the Vicariate Apos- tolic of Liao-timg was detached from the Diocese of Peking. It included both Manchuria and Mongolia. Emmanuel-Jean-Frangois-Verrolles, of the Paris Mis- sions Etrangeres, was the first vicar Apostolic. Five years later (28 August, 1840) the new vicariate was di^nded into three -idcariates Apostolic: (1) Liao-tung and Manchuria; (2) Mongolia; (3) Kan su. Mon- golia had been a dependence of the Diocese of Peking from 1690 to 1838, and after 1783 had been adminis- tered by the Lazarists; the Paris Missions Etrangeres kept it only two years, and when it was made a sep- arate \acariate Apostolic (28 August, 1840) at the head of it was placed Joseph Alartial ^louly, titular Bishop of Fussola, who, on his transfer to Peking (1857), was replaced by Florent Daguin, titular Bishop of Troas, who died 9 May, 1859. Fran9ois Tagliabue was then appointed pro-vicar and superior of the mission. On 7 Sept., 1864, the Lazarists surrendered Mongolia to the Belgian missionaries, and Theophilus Verbiest (b. at Antwerp in 1823) was the first superior and Pro- vicar Apostolic; he died 23 Feb., 1868, and was suc- ceeded as pro-vicar by Edward Smorembourg. Jac- ques Bax (b. 1824) was appointed vicar Apostolic 22 Oct., 1874, was consecrated titular Bishop of Adran, 6 Jan., 1875, and died 4 Jan., 1895, at Si-wan-tze. On 21 Dec, 1883, Leo XIII divided Mongolia into three vicariates Apostolic, Eastern, Central, and Western and Southern Mongolia, all in the hands of the Belgian Missionaries (Congr. Imm. Cordis B. M. V. de Scheutveld). The first Vicar Apostolic of East- em Mongolia was Conrad Abels, b. at Weest, Lim- burg, Holland, 31 Jan., 18.56, consecrated titular Bishop of Lagania, 31 Oct., 1897; residence at Sung shu tsuei tze (Notre Dainc des Pins). He was suc- ceeded by Theodore Hermann Hutjes, titular Bishop of Eleuteropolis, who dierl 4 August, 1896. There are in Eastern Mongolia 39 European and 12 native priests; 19,864 ChristiarLs; 18 clmrches. (2) Central Mongolia, after the partition, in 1883, remained under Mgr Bax, who was succeeded as vicar Apostolic by Jerome Van Acrtselaer (}). 1 Nov., 1845), consecrated titular Bishop of Zarai, 24 July, 1898, with residence at Siwan tze. There are 46 European and 23 native

eriests; 25,775 Christians; 37 churches. (3) Westem- outhem Mongolia. — To the vicariate created in 1883 were added l)y decree of 12 Oct., 1886, the Prefecture of Ning hia from the Kan-su vicariate and the Sub-

' prefecture K'u-luan. The residence is at Eul she sze k'ing ti. Vicar Apostolic AlphonsusBermyn (b. 2 Aug., 1.8.53) was consecrated 15 April, 1901, titular Bishop of Slniliiiiicca. He replaced Alphonse de Vos, titular Hisliop of Abilera, d. 21 July, 1S8S, and Ferdinand Ilamer, who was transferred from Kan-su, 30 August, 1888, and martyred August, 1900. There are 45 Eu- ropean and 1 native priests; 13,896 Christians; 30 churches. This vicariate is the Ordos country.

Bernh. Ji)LQ has translated Mongolian legends and tales into German, especially, Die Marchen des Sidrlhi KUr (186G-68) and I. J. Schmidt has translated the great work of Sananq Setzen under the title, Geschichte der Ost Mongolen und ihres Filrsten- hauses (St. Petersburg. 1829). The latter author has also pub- lished Grammatik der Mongolischen Sprache (St. Petersburg, 1831) and MongoHsch-deutsch-russisches W&rterhuch (St. Petersburg, 1835). J. E. Kov.^LEvsKi, Dictionnaire mongol-russe-fran^ais (3 vols, quarto. Kasan, 1844-49). Other Mongolian scholars worthy of mention are: von der Gabelentz, Bobrovnikov, Gold- STDNSKY, PozDXiEV. See also Campbell, Journey in Mongolia in China (1904), no. 1; KmsTOV. Journey in Mongolia in China (1904), no. 3 — both parliamentary papers: Cordier, Bibliotheca Sinica^ chapter Mongolia,

Henri Cordier.

Monica, Saint, widow; born of Christian parents at Tagaste, N. Africa, in 333 ; died at Ostia, near Rome, in 387. We are told but little of her childhood. She was married early in life to Patritius who held an offi- cial position in Tagaste. He was a pagan, though like so many at that period, his religion was no more than a name; his temper was violent and he appears to have been of dissolute habits. Consequently Monica's married life was far from being a happy one, more es- pecially as Patritius's mother seems to have been of a like disposition with himself. There was of course a gulf between husband and wife; her almsdeeds and her habits of prayer annoyed him, but it is said that he always held her in a sort of reverence. Monica was not the only matron of Tagaste whose married life was unhappy, but, by her sweetness and patience, she was able to exercise a veritable apostolate amongst the wives and mothers of her native town; they knew that she suffered as they did, and her words and exam- ple had a proportionate effect.

Three children were born of this marriage, Augus- tine the eldest, Navigius the second, and a daughter, Perpetua. Monica had been unable to secure bap- tism for her children, and her grief was great when Augustine fell ill; in her distress she besought Patri- tius to allow him to be baptized; he agreed, but on the boy's recovery withdrew his consent. All Moni- ca's anxiety now centred in Augustine; he was way- ward and, as he himself tells us, lazy. He was sent to Madaura to school and Monica seems to have literally wrestled with God for the soul of her son. A great consolation was vouchsafed her — in compensation perhaps for all she was to experience through Au- gustine — Patritius became a Christian. Meanwhile, Augustine had been sent to Carthage, to prosecute his studies, and here he fell into grievous sin. Patritius died very shortly after his reception into the Church and Monica resolved not to marry again. At Carthage Augustine had become a Manichean and when on his return home he ventilated certain heretical proposi- tions she drove him away from her table, but a strange vision which she had urged her to recall him. It was at this time that she went to see a certain holy bishop, whose name is not given, but who consoled her with the now famous words, "the child of those tears shall never perish". There is no more pathetic story in the annals of the Saints than that of Monica pursuing her wayward son to Rome, whither he had gone by stealth; when she arrived he had already gone to Milan, but she followed him. Here she found St. Ambrose and through him she ultimately had the joy of seeing Augustine yield, after seventeen years of re- sistance. Mother and son spent six months of true peace at Cassiacum, after which time Augustine was baptized in the church of St. John the Baptist at ^ Milan. Africa claimed them however, and they set