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MONOPHYSITES


492


MONOPHYSITES


niptibility" an obligatory doctrine, in spite of the fact ' guished from an earlier grammarian, also calledPhilo- that .Julian had been anathematized by a council at Constantinople in 53li, at which date he had probably been dead for some years.

A commentary by Julian on the Book of Job, in a Latin version, was printed in an old Paris edition of Origen (ed. Cienebrardus, 1.574). .\ MS. of the origi- nal Greek is mentioned by Mai. It is largely quoted


p(mus, who flourished under .\ugu.stus and Tiberius. Of his life 111 tie is known. On ac^count of his Trithe- isti<' opinions lie was smnmoned to Constantinople by ,Iusl inian, but lie e.xcu.sed himself on account of his age and infirmity, lie addressed to the emperor a treatise " De divisione, differentia, et numero ", which seems to be the same as a treatise spoken of as "De differentia


in the catena on Job of Nieetas of Heraclea. The quajmanerecreditur in Christo iiost unionem"; but it


great work of Julian against Severus seems to be lost. Ten anathematisms remain. Of his commentaries, one on Matthew is cited by Mo.ses Barkepha (P. G., CXI, 551). It is to be hoped tliat some of Julian's works will be recovered in Syriac or C^'optic transla- tions. An anti-Julianist catena in the British Museum (MS. Addit. 12155) makes mention of Julian's writ- ings. We hear of a treatise by him, ".\gainst the Eutj'chianists and Maniclia'ans", which shows that Julian, like his great opponent Severus, had to be on his guard against extravagant Monophysites. Part of the treatise which Peter of Calliuicus, Patriarch of Antioch (578-.591), wrote against the Damiani.sts is extant in Syriac MSS. (see Assemani's and Wright's catalogues).

The wTiters of the Tritheist sect (see Tritheists) ne.\t tiemand our attention. The chief among them, Julin Phitoponus, of CsEsarea, was Patriarch of the


is lo.st. He addressed an e.ssay onTritheism to Atha- nasius Monachus, and was condemned on this account at .Mcxandria. At a disputation held by the em- jieior's order before the Patriarch of Constantinople John Scliolasticus, Conon, and Eugenius represented the Tritlicists; John condcnined Philoponus, and the emperor issued an edict against the sect (Photius, cod. 24). In .'itis Pliiloponus was still alive, for he pub- lished a pamphlet against John, which Photius de- Bcrilies with great severity (cod. 75). The style of Philoponus, he says, is always clear, but without dig- nity, and his argumentation is puerile. (For the theo- logical views of the sect, see Tritheists.)

Conon, Bishop of Tarsus, though a Tritheist and, with Eugenius, a supporter of John Philoponus before the emjieror, disagreed with that writer about the equality of the three Persons of the Koly Trinity (see Tritheists), and together with Euqejiius and Themis-


Trit heists at Alexandria at the beginning of the sixth tins wrote a book, Kara 'Iwdfvov, against his views on


century, and was the principal writer of his party. He wa.s a grammarian, a philosopher, and an astronomer as well as a theologian. His principal theological work, Aioiti;t7js -^ irepi iviicreuis, in ten books, is lost. It dealt with the Christ ological and Trinitarian controversies of Ids age, and fragments of it are found in Ijcontius (De sectis, Oct. 5), in St. John Damascene (De ha~r., I, 101-107, ed. Le Quien) and in Niceph. Call., XVIII (.see Mansi, XI, 301). A complete Syriac translation is in Brit. Mus. and Vat. MSS. Another lost theo- logical work, irepl amaTdaeus, described the writer's theory of a creation of new bodies at the general resur- rection; it is mentioned by Photius (cod. 21-23), by Timotheus Presbyter and Nicephorus. As a philos-


the Resurrection. Eugenius is called a Cilician bishop by John of Ephesus, but Bar Hebrajus makes him Bishop of .Seleucia in Isauria (see Tritheists). The- mistius, surnamed Calonymus, was a deacon of Alex- andria, who separated from his patriarch, Timothy IV (517-535), and founded the sect of Agncetae. He wrote against Severus a book called "Apology for the late Theophobius", to which a Severian monk named Theodore replied ; the answer of Themistius was again refuted by Theodore in three books (Photius, cod. 108). Other works of Themistius are referred to by St. Maximus Confessor, and some fragments are cited in Mansi, X, 981 and 1117. Stephen Gobarus the Tri- theist is known only by the elaborate analysis of his


ophcr Philoponus was an Aristotehan, and a disciple book given by Photius (cod. 232); it was a "Sic et

of the Aristotelian commentator Ammonius, son of Non" like that of Abelard, giving authorities for a

Hermeas. His own commentaries on Aristotle were proposition and then for the contrary opinion. At the

printed by Aldus at Venice (on "De generatione et lend were some remarks on curious views of a number

interitu", 1527; "Analytica posteriora", 1534; "Ana- )of Fathers. It was evidently, as Photius remarks, a

lytica priora", 1.536; "De nat. auscult.", I-IV, and /performance of more labour than usefulness. "Deanima", 1.535; "Meteorologica", I, 1551; "Met-" Hi.story. — We now turn to the historians. Zacha-

aphysica", 1.583). lie also wrote much against the rias of Gaza, brother of Procopius of Gaza, the rheto-

'E5rix«V^Ma'"a of Proclus, the last great Xeoplatonist: rician, Zacharias Scholasticus, Zacharias the Rheto-


eighteen books on the eternity of the world (Venice, 1535), composed in .529, .and irep! Kocr^ioTrouas (printed by Corderius, Vienna, U)30, and in (iailandi, XII; new ed. by Reichert,, 1897), on the Ilexa'uieron, in which he follows St. Biisil and other Fathers, and shows a vast knowledge of all the literature and science acces- sible in his day. The lat ter work is dedicated to a cer- tain iSergius, who may perhaps be identified with Sergius the Grammarian, the Eutychianizing corre-


rician, Zacharias of Mitylene, are all apparently the same person (so Kugener's latest view, Krilger, and Brooks). Of his early life we have a vivid picture in his memoirs of Severus, with whom he studied at Alex- anflria and at Berytus. His home was at the port of Gaza, near the monastery of the bishop, Peter the Iberian. To the latter he was greatly devoted, and believed that Peter had prophesied his unfitness for the monastic life. He in fact did not become a monk,


spondent of Severus. The work was possibly written as when his friends Evagrius, Severus, and others did so, early as 517 (for 617 in the editions is evidently a cleri- but practised law at Constantinople, and reached caj error). A "Computatio de Pascha", printed after eminence in his profession. Of his writings, a dialogue this \york, argues that the Last Supper was on the 13th "that the world did not exist from eternity " was prob- of Xizan, and was not a real passover. A lost theo- ably composed in youth while he lived at Berytus. logical work entitled r/iiJAuiTa is summarized by Michael His "Ecclesiastical Historj'" is extant only in a Syriac the Syrian (Chronicle, II, 69). A Ixjok against the epitome which forms four books (III-VI) "of the "His- Council of Chalcedon is mentioned by Photius (cod. toria Miscellanea". It begins with a shortaccount .55). A work "Contra Andream" is preserved in a from a Monophysite point of view of the Council of Syriac MS. Another work "Against the Acephali" Chalcedon, and continues the history, mainly of Pales- exists in MS., and may be the work Philoponus is tine and Alexandria, until the death of Zeno (491). known to have written in controversy with Severus. From the same history is derived a curious statistical In grammar his master was Romanus, and his extant description of Rome in "Hist. Misc.", X, xvi. The writings on the subject are based upon the (ca^oXiKiJ very interesting life of .Severus carries the author's of Herodian (ronica wapa.yy4\fu:Ta, ed. Dindorf, 1825; recollections up to the accession of his hero to the .See irtpl Tuf Oiaipbput Tovoviiivuv, cd. l'",genolff, 1880). of .\ntioch in 512. It w;is written subsequently to the This sixth century Monophysite is to be distin- history, as the cubicuLarius Eupraxius, to whom that