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and (lis followers wcro nicknamed Tetraditea. Thus Peter Fullo, the Aet isteta-, and the Niobites on the one hand, and the Tritheists and Damianists on the other, developed the Monophysite formula' in the only two possible liirections. It is obvious that formulx which involved such alternatives were heretical in fact as well as in oripin. Severus tried to be orthodox, but at the expense of consistency. Ilis "corruptibilist" view is true enough, if the Human Nature is considered in the abstract apart from the union (see ErxYCHiAN- ism\ but to consider it thus as an entity was certainly an admission of the Two Natures. All change and BufTering in Christ must be (as the Julianists and Ju.s- tinian rightlv saw) strictly voluntary, in so far as the union gives to the Sacred Humanity a right and claim to beatification and (in a sense) to deification. But Severus was willing to divide the Natures not merely "before" the union (that is, logically previous to it) but even after the union "theoretically", and he went so far in his controversy with the orthodox John the Grammarian as to concede Suo <pv(reis Iv eewpla. This was indeed an immense concession, but considering how much more orthodox were the intentions of Seve- rus than his words, it is scarcely astonishing, for St. Cvril had conceded much more.

"But though Severus went so far as this, it is shown elsewhere (see Eutychianism, ]M.\ximus Confessor, and especially Monothelitism) that he did not avoid the error of giving one activity to our Lord, one will, and one knowledge. It is true enough that he had no intention of admitting any incompleteness in the Humanity of Christ, and that he and all the Mono- phy.sites started merely from the proposition that all activity, all will, and intelligence proceed from the per- son, as ultimate principle, and on this ground alone they asserted the unity of each in Christ. But it was on this ground that Monothehtism was condemned. It was not supposed by the best Catholic theologians who attacked that doctrine that the Monophysites denied Christ to have exercised human acti\dties, human acts of the will, human acts of cognition; the error was clearly recognized as lying in the failure to distinguish between the human or the mixed (thean- dric) activity of Christ as Man, and the purely Divine activity, will, knowledge, which the Son has in common with the Father and the Holy Spirit, and which are in fact the Divine Nature. In speaking of one activity, one will, one knowledge in Christ, Severus was reduc- ing Monophysitism to pure heresy just as much as did the Niobites or the Tritheists whom he certainly held in horror; for he refused to distinguish between the human faculties of Christ — activity, will, intellect — and the Divine Nature itself. This is not Apollina- rianism, but is so like it that the distinction is theoreti- cal rather than real. It is the direct consequence of the use of ApoUinarian formula;. St. Cyril did not go so far; and in this Monothelite error we may see the essence of the heresy of the Monophysites; for all fell into this snare, except the Tritheists, since it was the logical result of their mistaken point of view.

For general literature see Edtychianism. In P. G. there are more fragments than complete writinps. Important collections arc AssEMA.Ni, BMiotheca Orientalis (Rome. 1719-28); Ch.ibot and others, Corp. Script. Christ. Orient., Script. Syri; Graffin AND Nau, Palrologia Orient. {1905 — .in progress); also de La- OARDE, .inaUcta Syriaca (Leipzig. 1858); Land. Anecdota Syriaca (Leydcn, 1870). For the very numerous Monophysite wntmgs contained in Syriac MSS. see especially the following catalogues: AsHEUAN'I, Bibl. AfedictrfE Laurentiance et Palatina MS. Orient. eatal. (Florence, 1742); Idem. Bibl. Avort. Vatic, ratal., part I. vol. II-III (Rome, 17.58-9); Wright, Catal. of the Syriac MS. in the BrU. Mtu. acquired since ISS8 (I.«ndon, 1870-2); Wright and Cook, fatal, of Syriac MSS. of the Univ. of Cambridge (Cam- bridge, HK)1): .Sachaii. Ilandschrifl-Verieiehnisse der K. Bibl. zu Berlin, XXIII, Syritche .V.S.S. (Berlin. 1899), etc. On the litera- ture in gr-neral see A.hsf.mani. op. cit., II, Diatsertatio de Monophyai- tis; GlESEl-F.R. Commenlatio qiia MonophysHarum veterum errores ez eorum scriptii recent editin illnstrantur (Gottingen. 183.5-8); VlKir.wT.Syriac Literature (F.ncvclop. Brit.. 9th ed.,1887; published Bcparatelv a.? .1 Short IliKlory of Syr. Lit.. l.ondon. 1894) ; Di-val, La litUraturr Siiriaque Cird ed.. Paris, 1907); many excellent articles by KbCoeb in ReaUncs/clopadie.

On Timothy jlinjnua see Crdm, Eusebius and Coptic Church Hint, in Proc. ofSoc. of Bibl. Arch. (London. 1902); Ter-Mekert- T8CHIAN AND Ter-Minas8Iantz, Tim. Jilurus' des Patriarchen <ion Alezandrien, Widerlcgung der auf der Synode zu Chalcedon festaeattzten Lehre, Armenian text (Leipzig, 1908); Lebon, La Chriatologie de Tim. .lElure in Revue d'hiat. eccl. (Oct., 1908); Idem. Le Monophysisme sivirien (Louvain. 1909). 93-111.

For French tr. of the letters of Peter Fullo see R^villout in Revue des Questions Hist., XXII (1877). 83. and (in Coptic and French) Am^lineau, Mon. pour servir A I'ltist. de I'Egypte chret. (Paris. 1S8S) ; the Armenian text in Ismebeanz, The book of Let- ters Armenian only (Tifiis, 1901) ; the letters to Peter Mongus are in Mansi, VII, 1109 aqq.; in favour of their genuineness see Paoi's notes to Babonius, ad ami. 485. No. 15; against. Valesifs, Ohsert. ercles.. 4 (in his edition of Evagrics. Paris, 1673; P. G., LXXXVI). and TiLLEMONT. XVI. Greek fragments from the homilies of Timothy IV in Cosmos IndicoplcTisles (P. G., LXXXVIII). an entire homily in Mai, Scrip*, tet. nota coll., V (1831) and /». C, LXXXVI. Fragments of Theodobius m Coa- mns iibid.), and of letters to Severus in P. G., LXXXVI; see also Mansi, X, 1117 and 1121. A letter from Theodosius to Severus and one to Anthimus in His(. .Misc., IX, 24, 26.

On Severus see Assemani; Kruger in Realencykl. s. v.; Ven- ABLES in Diet. Christ. Biog.; Spancth, Zacharias Rhetor, Dot Leben des Severus (Syr. text. Gottingen. 1893) ; lives by Zacharias and John op Beith-Aphthonia. followed by a collection of docu- ments concerning Severus. edited by Kugener in Patrol. Orient., II- The Conflict of Severus, by Athanasicb, Ethiopic text with English transl., ed. by Goodspeed. together with Coptic frag- ments of the same work, edited by Cbum. m Patrol. Orient., HI; Duval, Homilies cathfdrales de SHh-e, 52-7, Sj-riae and French, in Pair. Orient., II; Brooks, Sixth book of select letters of Severua »n theSi/riac rrrsin-n nf Athnnasius of Nisibis (.Teit and Transl. Soc, London, I'inli : Vj-^-vn ^TIn<., s.i.^ifoso Movo'/>i.air.|s (Leipzig. 1894); Peiskeh ^ \ I ^ 1 rn , ein Kritischer Qvellenbetrag 2UT Geschichi, ■' i Halle. 1903); and especially Le- bon, Le .1/ j , ' largely founded on the study of

unpubIi3in--J .S.iiiuf .M.--.^. ill ll.t Urit. Mus. (Louvain, 1909).

On Julian see Fabricius, Cave. Gieseleb. Dorneb. Har- NACK- also Davids in Diet. Christ. Biog. (1882); Kbugek in Real- encycl. (1901); Lietzmann. Catenen (Freiburg. 1897); Idem.^m Julian von Hal. in Rheinisch. Mus., LV (1900), 321. On John Pbiloponus see Cave, Fabricius, Assemani, Dobnee, etc.; ScHiBFENBERG, DisscTt. dcJoanne Philop. (Leipzig. 1768) ; Davids in Diet. Christ. Biog.: Nauck in Allgemeine Encycl.: Stockl in Kirchenlex., s. v. Johannes Philoponus; Gass akd Meveb mReat- enciicl ■ RiTTEE. Geseh. der Philos., VI; Keumbacheb. Gesch. der hyz Lilt. (2nd ed.. 1897). 53 and 581. etc.; LuDWicB. De Joanne Phihpono grammatico (Konigsberg. 1888-9). On Zachabias we Kugeneb La compilation historique de Ps.-Zaeh. le rhHeur m Re- vue de V Orient ChrU., V (1900) , 201 ; Idem, Obsenatums sur la ne de Vascete Jsaie et sur lea vies de Pierre {lb. etdeTModored Antinol par Zach. le Schol. in Byzant. Zeitschr, IX (1900), 464; in these articles Kugener distinguishes the Rhetor from the Scholastic, whom he identifies with the bishop; but he has changed his mind ace. to Krugeb. Zach. Schol.. in Realencycl. (1908). See also be- low under Historia Miscellanea. .

The Plerophoria of John or MaTuma are presened in an abridgement in the Chronicle of Michael Syr. A French trans- lation by Nac. Les Plerophories de Jean, fvlque de Maiouma in Revue de VOrient chret. (189S-9. and separately. Pans. 1899). The life of Peter the Iberian. Ra,\be. Petrua der Iberer (Leipzig, 1895)' Brooks. Vita virorum apud Monophysitaa ceUbernmorum in Corn. Scrtp(. Orient., Script. Syri, 3rd series, 25, mcludmg the life of Isaias, which is also in Land III (Pans. 190-); a Georgian version of this biography publ. by Marr (St. Petersburg^ 1896). Kugener in Byzant. Zeitschr., IX (Leipzig. 1900). 464; Chabot. Pierre VIberien d'apres une rlcente publication in Revue de I Orient iaitn. III(1895).3. , ,. , ,,

The Historia Miscellanea of Pseudo-Zachabus was published by Land. loc. cit.. III. in Syriac; German tr. by Ahbens and Kuo^B, Die sogennante Kirchengeachichte von Zach. Rh. (Leipzig, 1899), HAMILTON and Brooks, The Syriac chronicle knoum as that of Zach. of Milylene (London, 1899, English only) ; see ^cgener, op. cit For Michael the Syrian. Chabot. Chronigve de Michel It Siirien (Paris. 1901-2, in progress). There is an abridged Latin translation of the Chronicle of Joshua in Assemani, he. «(.. 1, 262-283; Syriac and French by Martin, Chromque deJosutle SI. in Abhandlungen flir die kunde des Morgenlandes, VI (Leipzig, 1876). 1; in Syriac and English by Wright The Chronicle of J. the St. (Cambridge. 1882); Syriac and Latin ' "p'"'".'* °/^„^*4™ "^ ^ in Corpus Script. Orient., Chronica minora (Pans., 1902), Haluer. Unters,u:hungen Uber die BdessenischeChronikiii TexteundUn- ters IX (Leipzig. 1892). l-S^v m Butlelm entire. 25 Ian., 1897, Idem irJaTvS dfs paries inMites de l- chroni<,ue aJtribueea Deny, de Tell-mahri in .S«pp( to Reviie de '.OT^^itchrU Ami) T:^^^ BERG, Dionysii Tellmahrensia chromci lib I ('-Pf.»'%'„°?"',^ar^. bot, Chronique de Denys de T., gualrieme partie Pans. lS9o) Bedjan. Barhebreei Chronicon syruicum lv.nh Latin tr.. rara, 1890); Abbelooh and Lamy. Barhebra^, '^.^'Z' cA^ha^Ce^ntt tr.. I/)uvain. 1872-7); Lamy. Elie de Ntsibc, sa chronologic (earlier portion, with French tr.. Brussels. 1888). „„.„.■ • KHi'nEE'a

On Philoxenus see Assemani. Height. Duvai.. Reloees good article in Realevcucl.: Budge. The Discourses o.f Philozenua, BMoTo/MabbSgh. Syriac and English, "i'h 'f 7<^..ctK.n conj taining many short dogmatic writings and a list of «he works of Philoxenus in vol. 2 (London. 1894) ; Vaschalde TArM W^» »/ PhUoTenus Bishop of M., Syr. and Eng. (Rome. 19(^2) ; I?^«.f^- loxeni Mabbugenais tractatus de Trimtale et i"™"'"','™!,"'^^":^^iptore. .S«n.XXVII(Paris and Rome. 19m Dtn^^L, Hist, politique, religieuae et htUraire d'Edesse (Pans, 1892) . OuiBl.