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from 1887. Schools, as a matter of course, are main- tained at all the missions, those at St. Ignatius partic- ularly being models. The Ursulines have a convent at St. Peter's. The Jesuits were the pioneer missionaries to both Indians and whites in Montana. The minis- trations of Father De Smet extended to all the tribes that have been mentioned, and he, as well as all of his associate " black robes ", was held in the highest rever- ence by them. His labours were prodigious. In 1869 he induced five sisters of the conmiunity of Leaven- worth to come to Helena, where they founded St. Vincent's Academy.

Dioceses. — In the earlier territorial days, the west- ern part of the state was included in the Vicariate of Idaho, and the eastern part in that of Nebraska. An episcopal visit was made to these then remote regions by Bishop James O'Connor of Omaha in 1877, and Ijy Archbishop Charles J. Seghers of the Province of Ore- gon in 1879 and again in 1882. ITpon the urgent rec- ommendation of the last-named prelate, Montana was made a vicariate on 7 April, 1883, and the Rt. Rev. John B. Brondel, then Bishop of Victoria, Vancouver Island was appointed administrator. On 7 March, 1884, the Diocese of Helena was created, embracing the whole of Montana, and Bishop Brondel was ap- pointed to the see. He was at the head of its affairs until his death in 1903, when the diocese was divided, the eastern part of the state becoming the Diocese of Great Falls and the remainder continuing as the Dio- cese of Helena. The Rt. Rev. John P. Carroll, D.D., was then appointed liishop of the latter, and the Rt. Rev. Mathias Lenihan, D.D., of the former diocese.

C.A.THOLIC Population. — The Catholic population of the CJreat Falls diocese is about 15.000; of the Helena diocese about 50,000. Thirty priests minister to the people of the new, fifty-three to those of the old diocese. No statistics are available giving the nation- ality or ancestry of either the Catholic population or that of the whole people of the state. Among the for- mer, the dominant blood is probably Irish, a very large percentage of the adults being native Americans. But almost every Catholic country of Europe has contrib- uted to the truly cosmopolitan citizenship of Montana. China and Japan have added to some extent to the population. In recent years Italians, Austrians, Bul- garians, and Servians have come in considerable num- bers. Most of these are more or less closely attached to the ancient Faith.

Charitable Institutions. — Hospitals are con- ducted by sisters of various orders at Great Falls, Billings, Fort Benton, Lewistown, Helena, Anaconda, Butte, anil Missoula. There are a House of the Good Shepherd and an orphanage at Helena, and academies at Lewistown, Miles City, St. Peter's, Helena, and Deer Lodge. The parochial schools enrolled 55.36 pupils in 1908, not including those attending the mission schools on the reservations.

Distinguished Catholics. — The spirit of religious intolerance has had scant encouragement in Montana, and many Catholics have occupied prominent posi- tions in her industrial development and political his- tory. Among those who have served in high official station are (ieneral Thomas Francis Meagher, acting governor from 1865 to 1867; Hon. James M. Cava- navigh, delegate in Congress from 1867 to 1872; Hon. ■Martin Maginnis, delegate in ('ongress from 1873 to 1SS5; Hon. Thomas H. Carter, delegate in Congress from March to November, 1889, and representative from the atimission of the state to 1891; afterwards, from 1895 to 1901 United States Senator, and now serving his second term, having been again elected in 1905; and Hon. Thomas C. Power, United States Senator from 1889 to 1895. Among those who have written their names large in the industrial history of the state are Marcus Daly, Thomas Cruse, Peter t^ar- son, and John D. Ryan, the latter being at present at the head of the Amalgamated Copper Company.

Freedom op Worship. — Freedom of religion ia guaranteed by the following provision of the constitu- tion: "Art. Ill, Sec. 4. The free exercise and enjoy- ment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever hereafter be guaranteed, and no person shall be denied any civil or political right or privilege on account of his opinions concern- ing religion, but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed to dispense with oaths or affirmations, excuse acts of licentiousness, by biga- mous or polygamous marriage, or otherwise, or justify practices inconsistent with the good order, peace or safety of the state, or opposed to the civil authority thereof, or of the United States. No person shall be required to attend any place of worship or support any ministry, religious sect or denomination, against his consent; nor shall any preference be given by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship. ' ' The diversion of the public funds to the promotion of sec- tarian purposes is forbidden by the following: "Art. V, Sec. 35. No appropriation shall be made for charita- ble, industrial, educational or lienevolent purposes to any person, corporation or community not under the absolute control of the state, nor to any denomina- tional or sectarian institution or association."

Oaths. — Every court or officer authorized to take testimony or decide on evidence may administer oaths or affirmations, the witness being entitled to elect whether he shall be sworn or shall simply affirm.

Sunday Observance, etc. — Sunday is a holiday, as is Christmas, New Year's, and Columbus Day (12 October). If Christmas or New Year's Day falls on Sunday, the day following is a holiday. Whenever any secular act, other than a work of necessity or mercy, is appointed by law or contract to be done on a certain day, and it so happens that such a day is a holiday, it may be done on the day following with like effect as if done on the day appointed. It is a misde- meanour to keep open or maintaui on Sunday any barber-shop, theatre, play-house, dance-house, race- track, concert saloon, or variety hall. It is likewise a misdemeanour to disturb any assembly of people met for religious worship by profane discourse or in any other maimer. Neither blasphemy nor profanity is otherwise made punishable.

Prayer in the Legislature. — The law provides for the election of a chaplain of each house of the legis- lature and the daily sessions are opened with prayer by that officer. The Bannack session seems to have had no chaplain, but Rev. Joseph Giorda, S.J., offici- ated in that capacity for both houses, apparently, at the second session held at Virginia City in 1866. Rev. L. Palladino, S.J., the historian of the Montana Mis- sions, universally revered for his saintly life, who came to Saint Ignatius in 1867, acted in the same capacity at the ninth session.

Seal of Confession. — Disclosures made in the confessional are held sacred by express statute. A clergyman will be neither compelled nor permitted to testify as to them.

Incorporation of Churches. — Special provision is made for the incorporation of religious bodies and congregations. The method is simple. At a meeting, trustees are elected and they are authorized by resolu- tion to file articles with the county clerk or the secre- tary of state, according as the organization is to be local or general in its nature. The articles state the name of the corporation, its purpose, and the number of trustees. It then has continual succession, and the usual powers of a corporation. Another act provides for the organization of corporations sole "whenever the rules, regulations or discipline, of any religious denomination, society or Church, permit or require the estate, property, temporalities, and business thereof, to be held in the name of, or managed by a bishop, chief priest, or presiding elder, of such religious de- nomination, society or church." The passage of thi.s