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licvcd them to be in his own time (Ep., xli). He do- Bcribp.s tliom as Sabellians in their idea of the Trinity, as forbidding second marriage, as observinp; three Lents "as thougii three Saviours had sulTered". Above bishops tliey have "Cenones" (i)robably not Koifuvol, but a Phrygian word) and patriarelis above these at Pepuza. Tliey close the door of the Church to ahnost every sin. They say that tJod, not being able to save the world by Moses and tlic Propliets, took flesh of the Virgin Mary, and in Christ. His Son, preached an<l died for us. And because He cduld nut accomjilisli the s;dvatiun of the world liy this second method, the Holy Spirit descended upon Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla, giving them the plenitude which St. Paul had not (I Cor., xiii, 9). St. Jerome refuses to believe the story of the blood of a baby; but his ac- count is already exaggerated beyond what the Mon- tanists would have admitted that tliey held. Origen ("Ep. ad Titum" in "Pamph. Apol.", I fin.) is uncer- tain whether they are schismatics or heretics. St. Basil is amazed that Dionysius of Alexandria admitted their bajitism to be valid (Ep., clxxxii). According to Philastrius (Ilxr., xlix) they baptized the dead. Sozomen (xviii) tells us that they observed Easter on 6 April or on the following Sinidav. (iennanus of Constantinople (P. G., XC\ III, 44/says they taught eight heavens and eight degrees of danmation. The Christian emperors from Constantino onwards made laws against them, which were scarcely put into exe- cution in Phrygia (Sozomen, II, xxxii). But gradu- ally they became a small and secret sect. The bones of Montanus were dug up in S61. The numerous Montanist writings (/3i/3Xoifi7rei/)ot, "Philosophumena", VIII, xix) are all lost. It seems that a certain Asterius Urbanus made a collection of the prophecies (Euseb., V, xvi, 17).

A theory of the origin of Montanism, originated by Ritschl, has been followed by Harnack, Bonwetsch, and other German critics. The secularizing in the second century of the Church by her very success and the disappearance of the primitive "Enthusiasmus" made a iliflficulty for "those believers of the old school who protested in the name of the Gospel against this secular Church, and who wished to gather together a people prepared for theirGod regardless alike of num- bers and circumstances". Some of these "joined an enthusiastic movement which had originated amongst a small circle in a remote province, and had at first a merely local importance. Then, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief

in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit The

wish was, as usual, father to the thought; and thus so- cieties of 'spiritual' Christians were formed, which served; especially in times of persecution, as rallying points for all those, far and near, who sighed for the end of the world and the cxccssits e sa-culo, and who wished in these last days to Icaii a holy life. These zealots hailed the appearance of the Paraclete in Phrygia, and surrendered tlieniselves to his guidance" (Harnack in "Encycl. Brit.", London, 1878, s. v. Montanism). This ingenious theory has its basis only in the imagination, nor have any facts ever been advanced in its favour.

TiLLEMONT, Memmres, II; ScHWEOLER, Der Montanismus {Tiibingen, 1841); Ritschl, Entstehung der Altkatholischenkirche (2nd ed., Bonn, 1857); Bonwetsch, Gesch. des Montaniamiis (Eriangen, 1881); Idem, Die Prophetie im aposl. u. nachapost. Zeitalter in Zeihchr. /fir kirchl. WUsenscha/l u. Leben (1884), 460; Idem in Reatencyclop. fur prot, Theol. (1903), a. v. Montanismus; Weizsackeb in Theol. litt. Zeitung (1882), 74; Salmon in Diet. Christ. Biog.fB.v. MonUmus; DeSoyres, Montanism and the prim- itive Church (London, 1878); Cunningham, The Churches of Asia (London, 1880); Volter, Der Ursprungsjahr des Mont, in Zeit- schr./Or vriss. Theol., XXVII, 2,3; Harnack in Encycl. Britannica (9th ed., 1878), s. v. Montanism: Idem, Gesch. der altchr. Litt., I. 114; II, 363; Zahn, Gesch. des N. T. Kanons, I, iv (Eriangen, 1888); Idem, Forschungen. V, 3-,57: Die Chronologic des Mont. (Eriangen, 1893); Voigt, Eine verscholtene Vrkunde des antimont. Kampfes (Leipzig, 1891); Friedrich, Veber die Cenones der M. bei Hieronj/mus in Sitzungsber. Akad. Milnchen (1895), 207; A. H., Die Cenonen der Mont, in Zeitschr./Ur wiss. Theol., Ill (1895), 480;

Funk in Kirrhenlrx. (1893), s. v. Montanismus; Julicheh, Ein

gfill. Bi^rh»f!<rhriih,u des G. .fiihrh. nh /Ciiii/c ftir die Ver/assung der

.1/..,,',: ,', ■, , ', \n r.,1 <!•. '•. . A':-';.>r/i., XVI (1890), 664;

W I I II /' 11 I.:>' (leister im nachapost.

Z.,'. / ' I 111! ,1 I 'I Sia.wYN, T/ie C/in.t(ian

imvi'..' ,,,.'/',, ,i.,i,i/,,/,. 1, ,;,!.. I l.iiHlon, 1900); Ermoni,

La ens,- mantainste in tU-mc des qur.tUu,,^, LXXII (1902), 61; Tix^ront, Hist, des dogmes, I. 210; Batiffol, L'^glise naissante (3rded., 1909), 261; Duchesne, Uist.ancicnne deVEglise, 1,270. John Chapiwan.

Montauban, Diocese of (Montis Albani), suffra- gan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne. Suppressed in 1802 and divided between the three neighbouring dioceses of Toulouse, Agen, and Cahors, Montauban was re-established by imperial decree of 1809, but this measure was not ap- proved by the Holy See. Re-established by the con- cordat of"lS17, it was filled only in 1824.

In 820 the Benedictine monks had founded the Abbey of Montauriol under the patronage of St. Mar- tin; subsequently it adopted the name of its abbot St. Theodard, Archbishop of Narbonne, who died at the abbey in 893. The Count of Toulouse, Alphonse Jourdan, took from the abbey in 1144 its lands on the heights overlooking the right bank of the Tarn, and fountled there the city of Montauban; a certain number of inhabitixnts of Montauriol and serfs of the abbey formed the nucleus of the population. The monks protested, and in 114!) a s:itisfactory agreement was concluded. Notwithst;ui<ling the sufferings of Montauban during the Albigensian wars, it grew rap- idly. John XXII, by the Bull "Salvator" (25 June, 1317), separated from the ecclesiastical province of Narbonne, the See of Toulouse, made it an archiepisco- pal see, and gave it as suffragans four dioceses created within its territory: Montauban, St.-Papoul, Rieux, Lombez. Bertrand de Puy, abbot at Montauriol, was first Bishop of Montauban. Montauban counts among its bishops: Cardinal Georges d'Amboise (1484-1491), minister of Louis XII, and Jean de Lettes (1539-1556), who married and became a Protestant. Despite the resistance of Jacques des Pn's-.Montiiezat (1556-1589), a nephew of Jean de Lettes who succeeded him as bishop, the Calvinists bi'caiue masters of the city; in 1561 they interdicted Catholic worship; the destruction of the churches, and even of the cathedral, w;is begun and carried on until 1567. In 1570 M(intauli;in became one of the four strongholds granted tin- Protestants and in 1578, 1579,:uid 1.").S4 luirlioiiivd the synods held by the deputes of the Reformed Cliurclies of France. For a short time, in 1600, Catholic worship was re-estab- Ushed but was soon suppressed; Bishop Anne Carrion de Murviel (1600-1652) withdrew to Montech during the greater part of his reign and administered thence the Church of Montauban. In spite of the tmsuccess- ful siege of Montauban by Louis XIII (,\ugust- November, 1621), the fall of La Rochelle (1629) entailed the submission of the city, and Richelieu entered it on 20 August, 1029. Other bishops of note were: LeTonnellierde Hretcuil (1762-1794), who died during the Reign of Terror in the prison of Rouen, after converting the philosoi)lier La Harpe to Catholi- cism; the future Cardinal de Cheverus (q. v.), 1824^- 26.

The Church of Moissac, whose portal built in 1107 is a veritable museum of Romanesque sculpture, de- serves notice; its cloister (1100-1108) is one of the most remarkable in France. Legend attributes to Clovis the foundation of the Abbey of Moissac in 506, but St. Amand (594-675) seems to have been the first abbot. The abbey grew, and in a few years its posses- sions extended to the gates of Toulouse. The threats and incursions of the Saracens, Hungarians, and Northmen brought the monks of Moissac to elect "knight abbots" who were laymen, and whose mission was to defend them. From the tenth to the thirteenth century several of the counts of Toulouse were knight-