labours he found time to write numerous letters, valu- able theological works on the questions of the day, the DiWnity of Christ, the Real Presence, against the Jews and the MolianimiHlans, and conccrninR the statutes and the privileges of his order, besides ser- mons and even verses. Theologians praise the pre- cision of his teaching. When Abclard s doctrine had been condemned at Soissons. Peter opened his mon- astery to him, reconciled him with St. Bernard and with the pope, and had the joy of seeing him spend the rest of his life under his guidance. He died on Christmas Day, according to his wish, "after a sub- lime sermon to his brethren on the mysterj- of the day". Honoured as a saint both by the people and his order, he was never canonized; Pius IX confirmed the cult offered to him (1S62).
Petri Veii^rnhilis opera in P. L., CLXXXIX; RODULPHCS, Vita Petri Venerabilis in P. L., CLXXXIX. 5-27; Marie and DrcHESXE, BiUiotheea Cluniacensis. iJSS-eiS; MARxfcNE, .4m- pHssima Collectio, VI. 1187-1202; Gallia Christiana, IV, 1137- lltO; PiONOT, Hisloire de Vordre de Cluny. Ill, 49-509; Demi- MUID, Pierre le Vinirabte et la vie monastique au XII"^ siicle (Paris, 1895).
Montcalm-Gozon, Louis-Joseph, M.\rquis de, a French spiirnil. h. 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac, of Louis- Daniel and Marie-Therese de Lauris; d. at Quebec 14 Sept., 1759. He was descended from Gozon, Grand Master of Rhodes of legendary fame. The warlike spirit of his ancestors had given rise to the saying: "War is the tomb of the Montcalms." Though less clever than a younger brother, a prodigy of learning at seven, Louis-Joseph was a classical scholar. A soldier at fifteen, he spent his leisures in camp reading Greek and (jerman. He served successively at the sieges of Kehl and Philipsbourg, and became a knight of St. Louis (1741) after a camp;iign in Bohemia, and was appointed colonel of the Auxerrois regiment (1743). He received five wounds at the battle of Piacenza. In 1736 he had married Ang(?lique-Louise Talon de Boulay, grand-niece of the famous intendant of that name. Of this union were born ten children. In 1755 he succeeded the ill-fated Dieskau, in the command of the French army in Canada, under governor Vau- dreuil. The dissonance of character between the two chiefs was to cause much friction during this trying period. Unlike his superior, Montcalm was quick in conception, fearless, generous and impulsive, self- reliant and decisive in action. Intendant Bigot's un- scrupulous dishonesty, the apathy of the French court for the "few arpents of snow", an impoverished col- ony, an ill-fed, ill-clad and badly provided army, all this enhances Montcalm's heroic courage and faith- fulness to duty. He was ably seconded by the skilful, prudent and brave chevalier de Levis. The dispropor- tion in numbers and resources between the belligerent forces rendered more arduous the problem to be solved. Yet it was only after a record of three brilliant victo- ries that he was to end his glorious career on the Plains of Abraham. First in order of time comes the cap- ture of Chouaguen (Oswego), an undertaking wherein all the odds were against the besiegers. Overcoming all diffidence, Montcalm succeeded (14 Aug., 1756), thereby winning the region of Ontario to the domina- tion of France, and with a few badly armed troops taking 1600 prisoners, 5 flags, 100 guns, at the cost of only 30 killed and wounded. Attributing his success to God. he raised a cross with the inscription: " In hoc signo vincunt." In connexion with a later triumph, the capture of Fort- William Henry (9 Aug., 1757), Montcalm has been accused of tolerating the massacre by the Indians of the English prisoners. Yet, even Bancroft admits that he exposetl himself to death to stop the savages infuriated by the rum given them by the English contrary to his orders. The last and greatest of Montcalm's victories, shared by Levis and Bourlamaque, w.as at Carillon (Ticonderoga), a battle which was to result either in the salvation or destruc-
tion of New France. Although a first encounter (5 July, 17.5.S) had proved disastrous to the French, the death of the v;iliant young Lord Howe, the real head of the Knglish troops, deprived Abcrcromby of his chief support. OntheSth the onslaught of the entire Anglo-American army was rendi'rcd impossible by the earthworks and complicated biirricadc of felled trees protecting Fort Carillon; while a tlcudly fire deci- mated the assailants. When the fray was over 2000 Knglish soldiers lay killed or wounded, while the French losses were only 104 killed and 248 wounded; 38(X) men had repulsed 15,000. In thanksgiving to the God of Hosts, Montcalm raised a cross with an inscription.
After arresting the invasion by land, Montcalm had to face the attack of the naval forces. During the siege of Quebec by Wolfe, Montcalm with Levis won a first victory at Montmorency Falls, with a loss of 450 to the English (31 July, 1759). But the final act was drawing nigh, which was to seal the fate of New France. On 13 Sept. the enemy stealthily scaled the Heights of Abraham, and at early morn was ranged in battle. Montcalm, thunderstruck by the unexpected tidings, hurried from Beauport and arrayed his troops. Though about equal in numbers, they were doomed to defeat for several reasons, including sur- prise, hardship, privation, fatigue, and a disadvan- tageous position. Both generals fell, Wolfe dying on the battle-field, and Montcalm the next morning. This battle, considered in its results, was one of the greatest events of the eighteenth century. It saved Canada from the French Revolution and heralded the dawn of American Independence. Montcalm was a brave and generous commander, a high-minded and disinterested patriot; a faithful Christian giving to God the glory of his victories. His memory is cher- ished in the Old and the New World. In Canada he shares the honours awarded to his victor, as the fol- lowing inscription on their joint monument testifies: — Mortem virtus Communem famam historia Monumentum posteritas dedit. — a tribute duly anticipated by the French Academy in the last words of the hero's epitaph in the chapel of the LTrsuline monastery : — Galli lugentes deposuerunt et generosa? hostium fidei
commendarunt. (The French mourned and buried him and commended
him to the enemies' generosity).
Casorain, Montcalm et Levis (Tou?s, 1898); Doughty, The Riege of Quebec and the Bailie of the Plains of Abraham (Quebec, 1901); Chapais, La prise de Chouaguen in La Nouvelle-France (1909); Candide, Au pays de Montcalm in La Nouvelle-France
(1909). Lionel Lindsay.
Monte Cassino, Abbey of, an abbey nullius situ- ated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine Order. About 529 St. Benedict left Subiaco, to escape the persecutions of the jealous priest, Florentius (see Benedict of Nursia, Saint). Accompanied by a chosen band, among them Sts. Mau- rus and Placid, he journeyed to Monte Cassino, one of the properties made over to him by Tertullus, St. Placid's father. The town of Cassinum (Cassino), lying at the foot of the mountain, had been destroyed by the Goths some thirty-five years earlier, but a tem- ple of Apollo still crowned the .summit of the moun- tain, and the few remaining inhabitants were still sunk in idolatry. Benedict's first act was to break the image of Apollo and destroy the altar, on the site of which he built a church dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and an oratory in honour of St. Martin of Tours. Around the temple there was an enclosing wall with towers at intervals, the arx (citadel) of the destroyed city of Ca-ssinum. In one of these towers the saint took up his abode, and to this fact its preser- vation is due, for, while the rest of the Roman arx has been destroyed, this tower has been carefully pre-