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• MONTEFIASCONE


529


MONTENEGRO


Montefiascone, Diocese of (Montis Falisci), in the province of Rome. The city is situated nearly 2000 feet above sea-level, on a tufa mass that over- looks the Lake of Bolsena; it is famous for its wine. The town is of Etruscan origin and was called Falis- codunum. Some believe that it is the ancient Fanum Voltumnae. For the Faliscans, and later for the popes, it was a most important strategic position; Gregory IX fortified it in 1235 against Frederick II, but the town surrendered to that prince in 1240, and thenceforth never regained its earlier importance. The castle, now in ruins, was restored by Leo X. The cathedralistheworkof Sammicheli(lol9). Outside the city, on the road to Bolsena, is the famous double ba- silica of San Flaviano, the lower portion of which dates from 1030, while the upper basilica, dating from 1262, presents the interesting feature of alternating ogive and round arches. There also is the tomb of that fa- mous drinker whom the wine of Monte- fiascone brought to his death (Est, Est, Est), and who, con- trary to report, was neither a canon nor one of the Fugger family of Augsburg. Montefiascone is the birthplace of the poet Giambattista Casti, who died in 1802. This city, originally in the Diocese of Ba- gnorea, was made an episcopal see in 1369; its first bishop was the French Augustin- ian Pierre d'.\nguis- cen (1376), a parti- zan of the antipope

Clement VII. In Palace of the Princi

1435 the see was

united with that of Cometo, and so remained until, in 1854, Cometo became a part of the Diocese of Civitavecchia.

Among its bishops were Alessandro Farnese (1499), later Paul III; the two brothers and cardinals Paolo Emilio Zacchia (1601) and Ludovico Zacchia (1605), both of whom did much for the building of the cathe- dral; Cardinal Paluzio Albertoni Altieri (1666), founder of the seminary and restorer of the cathedral, which was damaged by a fire in 1670; the learned car- dinal M. Antonio Barbarigo (1687), who was trans- ferred later to Padua; he gave great assistance after the earthquake of 1695; Cardinal Pompeo Aldobran- dini (1734); the learned Giuseppe Garampi (1776), who gave its library to the seminary, and Cardinal Giovanni Sifredo Manzy (1794); the attitude of this prelate towards Napoleon was not imitated by his clergy, who therefore suffered imprisonment and exile. The diocese is directly dependent on the Holy See; it contains 18 parishes, 74 secular priests, 21 regulars, 26,147 inhabitants, 3 religious houses of men, 14 of women, and 3 convent schools for girls.

Cappelletti. Le Chiese d'ltalia (Venice, 1S87); de Angelis. Commentario storico-critico su I'oritfine € le vicende di Montefiascone (Montefiascone, 1841).

IT. BENir.Ni.

Montemayor (Montemor), Jorge de, writer, b. at Montemor, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; d. at Turin, 26 February, 1561. Although of Portuguese birth. Montemayor occupies a prominent place in the history of Spanish letters. Little is known of his life. We are informed, however, that he was not a man of university training, being not even acquainted with Latin.

The work which has given him fanje is hia pastoral X.— 34


novel "La Diana", published, according to common report, at Valencia, in 1542, but thought by others, from allusions in the work itself, to have been pub- lished after 1554, probably in 1558 or 1559. This book, which for a long time served as a model for novels of its kind, is written in good Spanish, and in it the author describes certain incidents in his own life, among others an unfortunate love affair. The por- tions written in verse are not as meritorious as those written in prose. The author promises a sequel which never appeared. Three other "Dianas" ap- peared, however, which purported to be continuations of Montemayor's. One by Alonzo Perez, a physician of Salamanca, who claimed that Montemayor had en- trusted to him his plans for finishing the work, ap- peared in 1564 and was a failure. The two others, by Caspar Gil Polo in 1564 and by Jer6nimo de Tajada in 1627, were more deserving of praise.

The "Diana" en- joyed great popular- ity and led to many imitations by famous authors, notably " La Arcadia" of Lope de Vega, and "La Ga- latea" of Cervantes, and it is said that Shakespeare based his "Two Gentlemen of Verona" upon an episode in "La Diana". It went through many edi- tions both in and out of Spain. There are six French, two Ger- man, and one Eng- lish translation of the book, the latter the work of Bartholo- mew Young (Lon- don, 1598). Mon- temayor has also left a number of lyric poems, pub- lished in 1554 under the title of "Caneionero", and reprinted in 1562, 1572, and 1588. These are also written in Spanish, but are not of any particular merit.

Revue Hispanique (Paris, 1S95): Fitzmaurice-Kelly, A His- tory oS Spanish Literature (New York, 1906) ; TicKNOR, A His- tory of Spanish Literature (Boston. 1866).

Ventura Fdentbs.

Montenegro, a kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula,

on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ancient times a portion of the Roman ]irovinoe of Dalmatia. Emperor Diocletian made Southern Dal- matia a separate province, Praevalis (Dioclea, Dio- clitia) with Dioclea as its capital. From the seventh century the north-western portion of the peninsula began to be invaded by Slav tribes; one of these, the Serbs, settled in the territory which they still possess, and founded there several principalities (Zupanate), the most southern of which was called Zeta, or (after the ancient Dioclea) Duklja. From Zeta sprang the Neraanjiden family, under whose autocracy the Servian Empire attained its greatest power (see Servia). Stefan I Nemanja was recognized as Chief Zupan by Emperor Manuel I, in 1165; having reduced into submission the stubborn lesser Zupans, he embraced the Orthodox Faith, and then began to organize the Servian Church. His youngest son, Sawa, or Sabas, after being appointed first Orthodox Archbishop of Ser\'ia in 1221, founded a see for Zeta in the monastery of St. Michael near Cattaro. In the Empire of the Serbs, each heir apparent to the throne was first appointed administrator of the Province of Zeta. However, under King Stefan Dusan (1331-55) a member of the Balscicz family was named Governor