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a work in which hr was closoly associated with St. Ignatius Lovula.

CantO, GUErcliciirilalia.U, (Turin, ISiio); CantC), // Oirrfi- nrt/f Giopanni Aforonc in Atti deW Instiiuto Lombariln (Turin, 1866); Bebnabki. Vila del Cardinale Moronr. (MoHpna. 1SS'>). The most intcroatinK anci satisfactory inatori;jl>j for Moroiir's lifi- are to he found in liia own despatches and in iIm' prctiu-.v* r-mtn!)- uted by his editors: see Frikdensbubo, N tiiiUiintrh, rnhh h aii^: Deutschland, part I, II (Gotha, 1892); Dn-ruun, (JiidUn :,n,i Forschunoen auf d, Gcbiete dtr GcschichlCt I (Paderljoru, l?Sl»2): Idem in Historisches Jahrbuch, IV (Bonn, 1883) ; Lammer, Mo- numenta Vaticana (Freiburg, 1901); Merkle, Concil, Trident. Diaria (Freiburg, 1901); Ehses, Concilium Tridentinum, IV (Freiburg, 1904); Steinhubeb, Gesch. d. Collepium Germ. (Frei- burg, 1906); Tacchi Ventdbi, La Vila Reliniosa in Italia, I (Home, 1910), in the appendix, pp. 534-49, is printed Father Sal- moron's evidence before the Inquisition given in Morone's trial. Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpsle, V (Freiburg, 1909); this last work is particularly valuable for an account of Morone's early missions.

Herbert Thurston.

Moroni, G.^etano, author of the well-known "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica", b. at Rome, 17 October, 1802; d. there, 3 Novenber, 1S83. He received his early education from the Brothers of the Christian School at Rome. Apprenticed later to a barber, his duties frequent- ly took him to the Cam- aldolese convent of San Gregorio on the Ccelian Hill; there the abbot, Mauro Cap- pellari, and several of the fathers recognized his ex- ceptional gifts, and made use of him in a quasi-secretarial capacity. When Cappellari became a cardinal, he made Moroni his cameriere: and when he became pope, as Gregory XVI, he took Mo- roni for primo aiutante di camera, employing him also as private secretary, in which capacity Moroni wrote over 100,000 letters. Moroni also served Pius IX as aiutante di camera. Among the books of the Camal- dolese convent and of the cardinal, as well as from conversation with learned people. Moroni acquired a vast store of information. He also gradually collected a considerable private library bearing on ecclesiastical ques- tions, while he made notes from the daily papers and from other publications for his own instruction. The subsequent arrangement of these notes in order suggested to him the idea of turn- ing his labours to the benefit of the public, an idea which he reahzed in the "Dizionario" (Venice, 1840-61; in- dex, 1878-9), a mine of interesting data and authori- tative in matters concerning the Pontifical Court, the organization of the Curia and the Church, and the ad- ministration of the Pontifical States. In matters of history, it depends on the writers whom its author consulted. It is

"The Tailor" Giovanni Battista Moroni, National Gallery, London

dinals, including Wiseman, and of other illustrious men. In the index of the "Dizionario" (s. v., Mo- roni), he incjic.-ilrs the various passages of the work in which li<' spiiiks of himself, and which thus constitute a kind of autobiography.

U. Benioni.

Moroni, Giov.wni Batti.sta, painter, b. at Bondo, near Albino, in the territory of Bergamo, between 1520 and 1.52.5; d. at Bergamo, in 1578. He was the pupil of Alcssandro Bonvicino, called Moretto da Brescia (about 1498-15.55), and one of the best imitators of his style. Moroni's work was done chiefly at Bergamo and in the vicinity. He was remarkable as a ijortrait painter, and as such was not inferior to his master. He has the same sincerity and nobility, but more originality. His portraits are among the most vigorous of the Renaissance; of these we may mention a "Scholar with an open book before him and a "Man in Black" at the I'ffizi (Florence); at the Gallery of Bergamo a "Young Man" and a "Woman", of e X c e 1 1 e n t workmanship; at the Brera (Milan) the portrait of Antonio Navar- giero, podesta of Bergamo; at the Ambrosiana Library in Milan, a "Man of sickly appearance"; at the Na- tional Gallery (London), portrait of a member of the I e n a r o 1 i family, "The Tailor", and Canon Lodo- vico Terzi of Bergamo; at the Louvre "An Old man seated holding a book", "of large, firm workmanship, somewhat heavy as in some of Tintoretto's portraits" (E. Mtmtz); in the Dubhn Mu- seum, "A Gentleman and his two children"; in the Museum of Madrid a "Ven- etian Captain"; in the Dresden Ciallen', portrait of a man; in the Gallery of Vienna, two portraits of men. In religious pictures, on the other hand, Moroni is inferior to Moretto, espe- cially in drawing and inven- tiveness, but his colouring, of a clear grayish tone, is not dis- agreeable. "It is only in his last works that the grey tone becomes monotonous and soft, together with a rather hard reddish colouring" (J. Burckhardt and Bode). Worthy of note are the "Coronation of the Virgin", painted for the church of the Trinity at Bergamo; the "Last Judgment" for the parish church of Gorlago, near Bergamo; "Virgin and Saints" and "St. Jerome" at the Carrara Academy of Ber- gamo; the "A.ssumption of the Virgin", the "Virgin surrounded by Saints" (two pictures) at the Brera of Milan; "The Jesuit" (portrait of Ercole Tasso), at Stafford House, the London residence of the Duke of

however, not a well-ordered or

homogeneous work; but these defects may be readily Sutherland,

forgiven in view of the fact that its author did his Blanc, Hist, des peintres de toutea les (coles (Paris, 1865^773:

work alone without real colkhnntinn anri •aTntp nt ■^™ vlnitienne: LCbke, Gesch. der ilahemschen Malerei, II

worK. aioue, wunoui real coiiaDoration, ana WTOte at (Stuttgart, 1878), 621; Denison. Champlin and Pebkikb,

times SLXteen nours a day. He was also the author of Cudop. of Painters and Paintings, III (London and New York,

official articles on papal ceremonies, the journeys of 1888); Bcbckhardt and Bode, Le Cicerone, II, 753; French tr.

the nones, etc. D.irin. t>,. cnn.I„,,.= .f l«9Q-„.^ °^«-^?--'-™'- 'S)^6'^rBRA^N, D.'rV^^^^^

gravers, III (London, 1904),

Gaston Sortais.

the popes, etc. During the conclaves of 1829" and

1831, he wrote the "Giomale storico-pohtieo-ceremo-

niale della sede vacante e il conclave per I'elezione di

Pio yill e Gregorio XVI", which, hke others of his

writings, remained unpublished. As a member of the

household of Gregory XVI, Moroni was the object of India, 4 July, 1826; d. at Wimbledon, 22 Oct., 1893, son

much sectarian hatred. He was a friend of many car- of John Camac Morris, F.R.S. He was educated

Morris, John, canon, afterwards Jesuit, F.S.A., b. in