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MOZARABIC


611


MOZARABIC


both the whites and the natives. In recent years the missionaries were still further hampered by the anti- Catholic policy of the Government. Ecclesiastically speaking, Mozambique is an exempt prelature be- longing to the ecclesiastical province of Goa. The prelature formerly included all the territory as far as the Cape, but is now confined to the Portuguese pos- sessions. In 1898 it was again entrusted to the Portu- guese branch of the Friars Minor. According to the latest statistics it contains: 12 priests (4 Friars Minor), 13 Sisters, 3500 native CathoUcs, 11 churches and chapels, 10 stations.

JOAO D08 Santos, V Ethiopia oriental e varia historia de cousas Tiataveis do Oriente (Evora, 1609), French tr. Charpy (Paris, 16S4, 1688); KijLB, Missionereisen nach Afrika^lll (1862); Spillmann, Rund urn Afrika (3rd. ed., 1897), 284 sqq.; Neoreiros, Le Mozambique (Paris, 1904) ; Pinon, La Cotonie du Mozambique in Reme des Detii Mondes, II, 5th period (Paris, 1901), 56-86. Con- cerning the natives see BotJRQUiN, Usos e costumes dos indigenas de Mof;ambique in Soc. degeog. de Lisboa (Lisbon, 1909), 420 sqq.

Thomas Kennedy.

Mozarabic Rite. — This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. History and Origin; II. MSS. and Editions; III. The Liturgical Year; IV. The Divine Office; V. The Mass; VI. The Occa- sional Services.

I. History and Origin. — The name "Mozarabic Rite" is given to the rite used geneially in Spain and in what afterwards became Portugal from the earliest times of which we have any information down to the latter part of the eleventh century, and still survi\'ing in the Capilla Muzdrabe in Toledo cathedral and in the chapel of San Salvador or Talavera, in the old cathedral of Salamanca. The name is not a good one. It originated in the fact that, after its abolition in Christian Spain, the rite continued to be used by the Christians in the Moorish dominions who were known as Mozdrabcs or Muzdrabes. The form Mostdrabes is also found. The derivation of the word is not quite certain, but the best theory seems to be that it is musta'rab, the participle of the tenth form of the verb 'araba, and that it means a naturalized Arab or one who has adopted Arab customs or nationality, an Arabized person. Some, with less probability, have made it a Latin or Spanish compound, Mixto-Arabic. The meanings, wliich are not far apart, applied entirely to the persons who used the rite in its later period, and not to the rite itself, which has no sign of any Arab influence. The names Gothic, Toledan, Isidorian, have also been applied to the rite — the first referring to its development during the time of the Visigothic kingdom of Sjiain, the second to the met ropolitan city which was its headquarters, and the third to the idea that it owed, if not its existence, at any rate a considerable revision to St. Isidore of Seville. Dom F(5rotin (Liber Or- dinum) prefers Rite Wisigolhique.

Its origin is still discussed, and the various theories have been already set forth under Ambrosian Rite (q. v.), Celtic Rite (q. v.), andGALLiCAN Rite (q. v.). Suffice it to say that whatever theory applies to the Galilean Rite applies equally to the Mozarabic, which is so nearly identical with it in construction as to leave no doubt of a common origin. The theory of Pinius (op. cit. in bibliography) to the effect that the Goths brought with them from Constantinople and Asia Minor a Greek Liturgy, which, combined with the al- ready existing Romano-Spanish Rite, formed the new rite of Spain, is not founded on more than conjecture. There is no definite information concerning the Span- ish variety of the Hispano-Gallican Rite until the end of the sixth and beginning of the seventh century (that is to say, until the period of transition from Arianism to Catholicism in the Visigothic kingdom), and, since the whole of Spain, including the Suevic kingdom in Galicia which had been annexed by the Visigothic king Leovigild, was then under the ecclesiastical juris- diction of Toledo, it may be presumed that the To- ledo Rite was used throughout the whole peninsula.


This had not been the case somewhat earlier. In ,538 Profuturus, Bishop of Braga and Metropolitan of the Suevic kingdom, had consulted Pope Vigilius on liturgical matters. Vigilius sent liim rather full in- formation concerning the Roman usages in the Mass and in baptism. The Council of Braga (561), held at the time of the conversion of the Arian Suevi to Catholicism, decided (cc, iv, v) that the orders of Mass and baptism obtained from Rome by Profu- turus should be exclusively used in the kingdom. This probably continued as long as the Suevi re- mained independent, and perhaps until the conver- sion of the Visigothic king Recared to Catholicism in 589. Though until this date the kings and the Teu- tonic ruling class were Arians, the native Spanish population was largely Catholic, and the rite — which was possibly revised and added to by St. Leander of Seville and the first Council of Toledo in 589, de- scribed and perhaps arranged by his brother and suc- cessor, St. Isidore (d. 636), and regulated by the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633 — was no doubt that previously in use among the Spanish Catholics. This is confirmed by the scanty liturgical decrees of the various Spanish councils of the sixth century. What the Arians used we have no means of knowing, and there is no reason to suppose that, whatever it was, its influence continued after the conversion of Recared and the submission of the Arian bishops. But the rite described by St. Isidore, allowing of course for the modifications and variations of many centuries, is substantially that now known as the Mozarabic.

Dom Marius Ferotin, O.S.B. (to whom the present writer is indebted for much help), in his edition of the Mozarabic "Liber Ordinum", dismisses the idea of any Oriental origin, and describes it as a purely Western rite, "the general framework and numerous ceremonies of which were imported from Italy (prob- ably from Rome)", while the remainder (lessons, prayers, hymns, etc.) is the work of Spanish bishops and doctors, with additions from Africa and Gaul. Without accepting the Italian or Roman origin as more than a very reasonable conjecture, we may take this as an excellent generalization. There was a pe- riod of development during the seventh century under St. Isidore, who was the moving spirit of the Council of Toledo of 633, Eugenius III of Toledo (646-57), to whom the chant known as "Melodico" or "Euge- niano " is attributed, St. Ildefonsus of Toledo (657-67), to whom certain masses are attributed, and St. Julian (680-90), who, according to his biographer and suc- cessor, FeUx, wrote a Mass-book "de toto circulo anni", and a book of collects, as a revision of the old books with additions of his own. But after the Moorish invasion, which began in 710, the Spanish Christians had little leisure for improving their lit- urgies, and, except for some prayers, hymns, and masses attributed to Abbot Salvus of Albelda (tenth century), nothing seems to have been added to the rite from the eighth to the eleventh century. In 870 Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, and afterwards emperor, wishing to see what the ancient Galhcan Rite had been like, had priests sent from Spain to say the Toledan Mass before him. In the latter part of the eighth century, the Spanish Rite had fallen under some suspicion owing to quotations cited by Elipandus of Toledo in support of his Adoptionist theories, and the Council of Frankfort (794) spoke somewhat dis- paragingly of possible Moslem influence on it. Some of the passages still remain, in spite of Alcuin's sug- gestion that the original and proper readings must have been asstmiptio and assumptus, not adoptio and adoptalus (or adoptivus); but they all can bear an orthodox explanation. It was in consequence of this suspicion that in 924 John X sent a legate (Zanelo, Zannello, or Jannello) to Santiago to examine the Spanish Rite. He reported favourably upon it, and the pope gave it a new approbation, changing only, as