Open main menu

Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/678

This page needs to be proofread.




Gospel (The Good Shepherd) is piven to the fifth. The sixth is Palm Sunday, railed only "Dominiea in Ha- mis Palmarum", but incUulinR. hetwcon the Prophecy and Epistle at Mass, the Trmlilio K>ij>nhiiti in the form of a "Sermo ad Populum". On Maundy Tliur.sday there occurs the same process of removing one of two consecrated Hosts to the Altar of Repose (called mo- numentum and Scpukhrum) as in the Roman Rite, and there is a ser\nce ad larandos pedes, in both cases with different words. The Washing of the Feet takes place "elausis ostiis et laicis omnibus foris projeetis", and tlie feet of certain priests are washed by the bishop and dried by the archipresbyter . "Postca ad cenam conveniunt." On Good Friday there is a penitential 8er\ace "ad Nonam pro indulgcntia", which consists largely of preces interspersed with cries of various cases of the word "indulgentia" many times repeated, and contains passages similar to the Impropcria of the Roman Rite, as well as lections, including the Passion according to St. Matthew. It is the remains of the solemn reconciliation of penitents, and is mentioned by the fourth Council of Toledo (633), canon vi. This is followed by the Adoration of the Cross and the Pro- cession and Communion of the Presanctified. The Easter Eve services are similar to those of the Roman Rite: the New Fire, the Easter Candle, the Prophecies (of which there are only ten, seven of which agree more or less with those of the Roman Rite, though not all in the same order), and the Blessing of the Font. But the words used throughout are very difTerent. Even the "Exultet" is not used, but another hymn of simi- lar import. Before the "Benedictio Cerei" there is a "Benedictio Lucerna;", and the Litany is used for the two processions, to the Font before the Blessing and back again after it.

From Easter to Pentecost there is no peculiarity ex- cept that the numbering of the Sundays includes Easter Day and that the four days before Whit-Sun- day are fasts. Formerly (e. g. in the time of St. Isi- dore) these fasts came after Pentecost, thougli they answered to rogation or litany days. Leslie conjec- tures that the alteration was made because of the Whit-Sunday baptisms. There is no Blessing of the Font on the vigil of Pentecost, but there are allusions to baptism in the ser\-ices of the vigil and the day it- self. The following Sunday only commemorates the Holy Trinity in certain of the prayers at Mass (for which there is a direction to use those of Palm Sunday which have allusions to the Trinity, instead of those for the Sunday, which are to be transferred to the fol- lowing Tuesday), in the title "in die Sanctissimae Trinitatis", and in the hymns in the Bre\'iary Office. Otherwise the day, as far as there is anything definite about it, is treated as the Octave of Pentecost and the allusions are to the Holy Spirit. Corpus Christi is kept on the following Thursday, and the Mass and Office, though naturally enough influenced by the Ro- man propers, are composed on a purely RIozarabic plan. In the Missal seven .Sundays after Pentecost ha^e Masses, as well as the Sunday before the fast of the Kalends of November. In the Breviary the Sun- days after Pentecost are only three. There is a direc- tion in the Breviary that if there is no Feast on any Sunday during that season, one of these three offices must be used. Two sets of three-day fasts occur in this season, one before the Feast of St. Cyprian (13 Sept.) and one before that of St. Martin (11 Nov.). They have nothing to do mth cither St. Cyprian or St. Martin, whose days only serve as key-days to them (cf. Holy Cross and St. Lucy, as key-days to the Sep- tember and December ember-days). The November fast is called "jejunia Kalendarum Novembrium". They are really days of I>itany or Rogation, and are both mentioned by St. Isidore; the September fast is evidently mentioned by the fifth Council of Toledo (can. i), though ob\-iously by a mistake it calls it "di&s Iduum Decembrium", and the November one by the

Council of Gerona. In the Sandorale there are of course a large mniiber of Spanish saints who either do not occur al all or receive only cursory mention in the Roman Calendar, but there are also many that are common to the whole Church, and in the modern books a mimber of feasts, some of which were insti- tuted after the period of the IVISS., have been added. There are two modern forms of the Calendar. In that prefixed to the Breviary a rather small number of days are marked, hardly any (as in the Ambrosian Calendar) during the possible Lenten period, but offices or references to the Common are given in a large appendix for a great number of other saints. In that prefixed to the Missal all these days are put in one series, as their Masses are in the body of the book. There are a good many discrepancies in the existing MS. calendars, and it is not always quite easy to determine the exact day of some of the older feasts, but now most of the days which are common to both have been assimilated to the Roman. The Annunciation is kept twice, on 2.5 March and on IS December. The last, called "Annunciatio S. Maria; Virginis de la O", is really the "Expectatio Partus B. M. V." Its name is referred to a curious custom in the Toledan Use, according to which the whole choir sing a loud and prolonged O at Vespers on that day, to signify, it is said, the eager desire of the saints in Limbo, the Angels in Heaven, and of all the world for the birth of the Saviour. This or the Antiphons known as the "Great O's" may be the cause of the name, which is known outside Spain. The tenth Council of Toledo (G.56) ordered the Annun- ciation to be kept on that day, because 2.5 March came either in the Lenten or Easter period, and thus unsuitable, and shortly afterwards St. Ildefonsus, with reference to this decree, calls it "Expectatio Puerperii Deipara;". In the printed Missal the same Mass is ordered also for 25 March, but no Office is given in the Breviary. (Cf. the Ambrosian custom of keeping the Annunciation on the sixth Sunday of Advent for the same reason.) Sometimes there are other disagreements between the modern Missal and Breviary. Thus, the Decollation of St. .John Baptist is given for 29 Aug. (the Roman, and also the Byzan- tine day) in the Missal, but for 24 Se]jt. (the old Mozarabic day, as appears from the ^ISS.) in the Breviary. In both, 1 May is Sts. Philip and James, and the Mass is the same, mutatis nominibiis, as that of Sts. Peter and Paul, while the Office is similar to that of Sts. Simon and Jude. But in the MSS. St. Philip alone is mentioned, St. James the Less being, as ^7e have seen, already provided with a day in Christmastide, not only in them but also in the printed books. But 1 jNIaj' is also the feast of St. Torquatus and his companions, the Apostles of Spain, who naturally eclipse the other Apostles. The Sunday before the Nativity of St. John Baptist is kept as "Dominica pro adventu S. Joannis Baptista;". As its position with regard to the general sequence of Sundays is variable, its Mass and Office are given in the Sanclnralc. The classification of feasts is very simple. There are Principal Sund.ays, which are those of Lent and Advent, and of course Easter Day and Whit-Sunday. Feasts are "sex capparum , "quatuor capparum", and "novem lectionum", the last being also called "duarum capparum". The distribution of these titles is occasionally rather arbitrary, and the Missal and Breviary do not always agree. If a feast comes on a Principal Sunday it is transferred to the next day, unless that is a greater feast, when it is put off to the next free day. If two equal feasts fall on the same day (the example given is Sts. Philip and James and St. Torquatus), the office is that of the saint who has a proprietas (proper), unless the other is the Vocalio (patronal feast) of the church, in which case the one with a proper is trans- ferred. If a feast comes on an ordinary Sunday, the