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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/679

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MOZARABIC


617


MOZARABIC


Sunday is omitted (quia satis hahehit locum per annum) and the feast is kept. During the Octaves which are kept "secundum Regulam Gregorianum", any vacant day is of the Octave, but the Office is not said solemniter except on the Octave day. If a greater feast is followed by a lesser one, the Vespers is of the greater but the last Lauda, with its prayer, is of the lesser. These rules, which do not differ in principle from those of the Roman Rite, are pre- fixed to the printed Breviary. Their comparative simplicity is probably more apparent than real.

IV. The Divine Office. — The present Mozarabie Divine Office differs from all others in several points. As a general rule, which applies to every other rite. Eastern or Western, the Divine Office may be de- fined as the recitation of the Psalter with accompany- ing antiphons, lections, prayers, canticles, etc., and the nucleus is the more or less regular distribution of the Psalter through the Canonical Hours, generally of one week. In the Mozarabie Rite there is now no such distribution of the Psalter. Psalms are used at all the Hours except Vespers — when, except in fasting time, there are none — but they are as a rule fixed psalms. In the first three weeks of Lent and during the three-day fasts before the Epiphany, St. Cyprian's Day, and St. Martin's Day, and the four-day fast before Pentecost, there are three selected psalms (or sometimes one or two psalms divided into three) at Matins, Terce, Sext, and generally at None, and usually one selected psalm at Vespers, but there is no consecutive order; some psalms are repeated many times, while others are omitted altogether. In the week after the first Sunday after the Epiphany, psalms i . . . xxi, xxiii, xxiv are said consecutively at Matins and Terce, three psalms or divisions of psalms at each until the Thursday, two at Terce on the Friday, and none except the usual fixed psalms on the Saturday. In the MSS. (e. g. in the Psalter in Add. MS. 30851) there are indications of a more regular distribution of the psalms. At Matins, which is a morning and not a night Office, there are no lessons like those of the Roman Rite and its variants, but a certain similarity of construc- tion exists in the sets of three Antiphonce followed by a responsory, which sets, though normally there is only one, are increased to two, three, four, and even five on certain days, though this increase is rather capri- cious and inconsistent. The Silos Lectionary of 1059 consists of lessons for the now obsolete Night Office; such lessons as there are now occur at Lauds, where there is one variable with the day, which is sometimes called Prophelia, and at Prime, Terce, Sext, and None, where there are two short Lessons, a Prophelia from one of the Prophets or from the Apocalypse and an Epistola from one of the Epistles. These have about four variations with the seasons, except during the fasts, when there are long addi- tional lessons at Terce, Sext, and None (cf. the lessons at Terce during Lent in the Ambrosian Rite), varying every day and also of varying number. An- other peculiarity is the existence of an extra hour, called Aiir<ir(i (also Ordo Pecidiaris), before Prime. In a Lihir Onliniim at Silos, besides the usual Hours and Ihis Unio Pecidiaris, Offices are given for all the intermediate hours of the twelve, as well as ante Complela, post Cooipleta, and ante Lectulum. Vespers, Matins, and Lauds are very variable, but there is much less variability in the Lesser Hours and Com- pline. A considerable part of the Office is made up of respnnsnrin, constructed on similar principles to those of the Roman Rite, but called by the various names of .1 iiliphuiiu, Lauda, Sono (or Sonos), or Matu- tinarium accoriling to their position in the Office. (Antiphona also means the antiphon of a psalm or canticle, which is of the same form as in the Roman Rite.) They vary in form, but the general plan is: Verse, Response, Verse, repetition of first Response,


Gloria, second repetition of Response or of first Verse and Response. The first Lauda at Vespers and the Sono are generally without the Gloria and the second repetition of the Response. These various responsorics and also the psalms, canticles, etc. are generally followed by Orcitiones, which arc usually founded on them, with or without special reference to the day or season.

The construction of the Hours is as follows: Before every Hour except Lauds, which follows on after Matins: Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater Noster; Ave Maria, are said secretly, kneeling. Then, standing, In nomine D.N.J.C. lumen cum pace. R. Deo gratias. V. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo. This elongated form of the Dominus vobiscum is said very frequently after col- lects and responsorics and in various other places. The form of the Gloria, which also occurs very fre- quently, is: Gloria et honor Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto in scecula sseculorum. Amen.

Vespers (Ad Vesperos). — (1) Lauda followed by its oratio. Alternative names are psalmus and vesper- tinum, and the words are nearly always from the psalms. This form of Lauda has no Gloria. (2) Sono on Sundays and feasts, but not on ferials except in paschal time. Tliis is also without Gloria. (3) Alle- luia, followed by an antiphona with Gloria. Some- times there are two antiphona;, each followed by its oratio. In Lent, on the fasts, and in the week after the Octave of the Epiphany, a selected psalm with its antiphon takes the place of this antiphona. (4) Sccniid l.iiiiild, with Alleluias interspersed in rather variable fashions, with Gloria. The Regula in the be- ginning of the Breviary has this definition: "Anti- phona est qua; dicitur sine Alleluia; et Lauda quae cum Alleluia dicitur", but this is not an exhaustive defi- nition, and, as in the Roman Rite, Alleluia is not used in Lent. (5) Hymn. This of course varies with the day. There is a great wealth of hymns in the Mo- zarabie Breviary. (6) Supplicatio, a Bidding Prayer generally beginning "Oremus Redeinptorem mundi D.N.J.C, cum omni supplicatione rogemus", and continuing with a clause appficable to the day, with response: "Praesta seterne omnipotens Deus", and Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. (7) Capitxda, a prayer of the diffuse Galilean type, often embodying the idea of the Supplicatio. (8) Pater noster, divided into petitions with a response of Amen to each except " Panem nostrum etc." when it is "Quia Deus es", and followed by an occasionally varying Em- holismus. (9) Benediciio in four clauses with Amen after each, and preceded by "Humiliate vos ad bene- dictionem". (10) Third Lauda, with Gloria. Some- times there are more than one of these, each followed by an oratio. On feasts sex capparum the altar is censed while this Lauda is sung. (11) Then follow Commemorations which are in the form of a short Lauda and oratio. (12) Dismissal: "In nomine D.N. J.C. perficiamus in pace. R. Deo Gratias." The orationes at Vespers, unlike those at Matins and Lauds, begin immediately without "Dominus sit sem- per vobiscum". Each has two Amens, one before and one after the final clause, "Per misericordiam etc."

Compline (Completoria). — (1) Ps. iv, 7-10, followed by three Alleluias. (2) Ps. cxxxiii, followed by three Alleluias. (3) Six selected psalms and other verses. (4) Hymn, "Sol Angelorum respice", with Ps. xii,

4, as versicle and response. (5) Ps. xc. (6) Ps. xc,

5, and Ps. cxxxiii, 3-5, with "Memor &sto mei Do- mine" as response to each verse, and Gloria. (7) Hymn, "Cultor Dei memento". (8) Three Suppli- cciliones of similar form to that at Vespers. (9) Pater noster, with Embolismus. (10) Benedictio. (11) Dismissal, as at Vespers. (12) Commemoratio. Ps. xvi., 8, 9, as Laudo,"followed by an oratio. (13) "In nomine D.N.J.C. in hac nocte dormiamus et re- quiescamus in pace. R. Deo Gratias". There are a