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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/680

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few additions on Saturdays, the prinoipal Feasts, in Lent (when there is also a short "Ordo ante Comple- toria"), and "De traditione Domini" (Fassiontide) after the psalms, some variant hymns, and "Misera- tiones" with variant cnpiluUr and houdidionif: for each day of the week, and for the "Tradilio Domini". Matiits (Ad Maditinum). — The week-day form is: (1) Antiphon of Oiir Lady, Air licgimi ('<rliirinn. (2) In nomine D.N.J.C. etc., as hcfore the other Hours.

(3) Generally Ps. 1 with a variable antiphon (in the Roman sense) before and after it, and an oralio. Sometimes Ps. iii is used here (e. g. during Lent and on other fasts and during Paschal time), and some- times Ps. Ivi. (4) The Antipho/i(F. These are in sets of tliree antiphona- and a rcsponsorium. The last only differs from the antiphona' in name. To each is ap- pended its oratio. During the first tliree weeks of Lent and the fasts of Epiphany, Pentecost, St. Cyprian, and St. Martin, and on four days of the week after the Octave of the Epiphany, three vary- ing psalms with antiphons and orationes followed by a responsorium and oratio take the place of the anti- phonfF. There is usually only one set of AnIiphoTws etc., but there may be (e. g. on the Feast of Sts. Fruc- tuosus, Augurius, and Eulogius) as many as five. On Sundays Matins begins with the hymn "^Eterne re- rum conditor", and, except during Paschal time (when only Ps. iii is said), there are three psalms (iii, 1, and Ivi) with their orationes, instead of only one of these.

Laiiils {hi Laudibus) follows immediately on Mat- ins with no preliminary except "Dominus sit semper vobiscum". Its order is: (1) A variable Canticle from the Old and occasionally from the New Testa- ment, with an antiphon before and after it. Some- times an oralio follows. On Cliristmas Day the Magnificat is said in addition to the first Canticle and on the Annunciation instead of it. (2) On Sundays and feasts, the Canticle "Benedictus es Domine Deus Patrum nostrorum" (Daniel, iii, 52 sq.), which in- cludes a very much compressed form of the Bene- dicite. It is sometimes followed by an oratio. On ferials an antiphona or responsorium, called Maiuti- nariwrn, takes the placeofthjs canticle. (3) TheSono, generally the same as that at Vespers. This, as at Vespers, is not used on ferials, except in Paschal time.

(4) The Laudate Psalms (cxlviii, cxlix, cl) preceded by a variable Lauda. On some ferials only Ps. cl is ordered. (5) The Prophetia, a lection from the Old Testament, or in Paschal time from the Apocalypse. (6) The Hymn of the day. (7) Supplicatio, as at Vespers. (8) Capitula, as at Vespers. (9) Pater noster and Emholismus, as at Vespers. (10) Lauda, as at Vespers. (11) Benediclio, as at Vespers. The Vesper order of these last two is reversed. The last six are as a rule a different set from those at Vespers. (12) Commcmorationes, as at Vespers. (13) Dis- missal, as at Vespers. In Lent and in the other fasts, Lauds begins with Psalm 1 and its antiphon. On these occasions Ps. iii is used at Matins.

Aurora. — A verj' simple office, without variations, said before Prime only on ferials. (1) Ps. Ixix, cxviii, pts. 1-3, under the one antiphon, "Deus in adjuto- riumetc." (2) Lauda. (3) Hymn "Jammetanoctis transiit", with its versicle, of which there are three variants. (4) KjTie eleison etc. (5) Pater noster with Embolinmus, said as at Vespers. (6) Preces, a short litany for all sorts and conditions of men. There are two forms of this.

Prime, Terce, Sext, None. — These are constructed on the same plan, and may be taken together. The order is: (1) The Psalms. At Prime, seven (Ixvi; cxliv, 1-12; cxliv, 13-21; cxii; cxviii, pts. 4-6); at Terce, four (xciv, cxviii, pts. 7-9); at Sext, four (liii; cxviii, pts. 16, 17, 18); at None, four (cxlv; cxxi; cxxii; cxxiii), in each c;ise under one antiphon. (2) Re- sponsorium, varying with the day. These variations are chiefly "commons" of classes of saints and for

Lent, Advent, Clu-istinas, and lOastcr. The Psalms and Rcsponsoria are without orationes. (3) Prophetia, a lection from the Old Testament or Apocalypse. (4) Epistohi, a lection from the Epistles. At Prime lections do not vary and are very short; at Terce, Sext. and None there is more variety, and dur- ing Lent and on t he fasts, when these Hours are differ- ently arranged, there are very long lections. (5) Lnuda, with Alleluias or " Laus tibi etc " (6) Hymn. There are a few variants for different seasons in each hour. (7) At Prime on Sundays and Fe.asts here follow the Te Deum, Gloria in Excelsis, and Credo; on ferials, instead of the first two, the Benedictus es Do- mine Deus (Dan., iii) and the Mi.iercre (Ps. 1) are said. At the other three Hours the Clnmores, short suppli- cations for mercy antl pardon (a different set for each Hour), are said here. (8) Supplicatio, as at Vespers. (9) Capitula, as at Vespers. (10) Pater noster etc., as at Vespers. (11) Benedic/io, as at Vespers. The last four have only a few variants, and generally have ref- erence to the usual event scommcnKiralcd at I he Hours. On thefasts and in the week after Epiphany there are special lessons varying in number, and these are gen- erally followed by three psalms, with their antiphons and orationes and a responsorium with its oratio, as at the Matins of those seasons. Then follow Preces, the Hymn, Capitula, and the rest as on the other days.

At the end of Vespers, Compline, and Lauds cer- tain fixed Commemorationes, appropriate to the Hour, are said, and after CompUne and the Lesser Hours, iSidrc lii'fiina is said throughout the year, but after Lauds, Salee Regina, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ecce Maria genuit Salvatorem, Sub tuum prrcesidium, and Regina cwli according to the season. There are many other variations, for at Vespers, Matins, and Lauds nearly everything is variable according to the day and the season, and a good deal is so at the Lesser Hours. Some few things may have been altered and added since, but the Divine Office as described above, which is that in present use, does not seem to differ mate- rially in structure from that indicated in the tenth and eleventh century MSS. in the British Mu.scuni, except that there were formerly al.Mi certain Xiglit Offices — "Ordo ante Lectulum", "Ad Nocturnos", "Ad Me- dium Noctis" etc. — which are given in Add. 30851 and elsewhere. Possibly these were only for monastic use.

V. The Mass. — In the present Mozarabic Mass two books are used, the Missale Omnium' Offerentium and the complete Missal. The Missale Omnium Offeren- tium contains what in the Roman Rite would be called the Ordinary and Canon. As nearly the whole Mass varies with the day, this book contains a specimen Mass (that of the Feast of St. James the Great) set out in full with all its component parts, variable or fixed, in their proper order. On all other days the variables are read from the com])lete Missal. The reason of the name Omnium Offerentium has not been very satisfac- torily determined. It would naturally mean "of all who offer", and the phrase "et omnium offerentium . . . peccata indulge" occurs at the oblation of the chalice. There does not seem to be any reason why this one phrase, which is not in a very striking posi- tion, should give its name to the whole service, unless those are right who (like Perez in his " Devocionario Mozdrabe") applj' the name only to the Missa Cate- chumenorum. There are indeed quite as improbable origins as this in liturgical nomenclature. But it is possible to conjecture another origin. In the Celtic languages the word for Mass is derived from some Latin word whose origin was the verb offero. The Cornish, Welsh, and Breton have offeren: the Gaelic aifrionn or aifreann. These are generally referred to offerendum, and in support of this we find the French offrande and Sixmish ofrenda, both in the sense of a re- ligious offering, equivalent to the Welsh offrwm and Cornish offryn. But the Celtic words are more prob-