ably derived from offerenHn, a word which is used by TertuHian (Adv. Marc, xxiv) in the general sense of the act of presenting an offering, but. which was perhaps used for a time in Celtic countries in the special sense of the Holy Offering. Thus it may be conjectured that the Spanish expression was originally "Missale Om- nium Offerentiarum ", "Missal of all Masses", which is just what it is. It has been suggested that offerens may have been used in very debased Latin in the sense of an act of offering as well as of one who offers. This would explain the Mozarabic phrase still better. The Order of the Mass is as follows:
(1) The Preparation. — This consists of prayers dur- ing vesting, which for the most part resemble those of the Roman Rite in meaning and sometimes in actual wording. These are followed by a responsory and oratio for pardon and purity, after which the priest goes to the altar and says Ave Maria, In nomine D.N.J .C, Sancti Spiriius adsit nobis gratia, Judica me, with the Antiphon Introibo, Confiteor, with the absolu- tion and the subsequent versicles and responses. The Confiteor differs from the Roman form and there are versicles and responses before it. Then Aufer a nobis, a longer form than the Roman. Then follows the Salutation of the Cross. The priest makes the sign of the cross on the altar, kisses the altar, and says a re- sponsory "Salve crux pretiosa" and an oratio. A good deal of this preliminary matter was borrowed by Cardinal Ximenes from the Toletan (Roman) Missal, and is not Mozarabic. On great feasts the priest di- rectly he enters sings to a rather florid piece of plain chant a prayer "Per gloriam nominis tui etc." for help.
(2) The Preparation of the Chalice and Paten. — The corporal is unfolded, the chalice and paten are cere- monially purified, the wine is poured into the chalice, the water is blessed and poured in, and the bread is placed on the paten. To each of these acts there is a prayer or a blessing. A preparation of the chalice before Mass, instead of at the Offertory, is to be in- ferred from the Irish tracts (see Celtic Rite). It is still the Byzantine practice, and is retained by the Dominicans at low Mass. Yet in the Mozarabic Missa Omnium Offerentium there is a direction to put wine into the chalice during the Epistle, but it is not done.
(3) Ad Missam OJjicium. — This is the Introit. Offi- cium is a common alternative name, used, among other places, in the Sarum Missal. The old Mozara- bic term (see Add. MS. 30844) was Prcelegendum or Prolegendum. Antiphona ad prwlegendum is the name given by St. Germanus of Paris. It is in the form of a responsory, with Alleluias and Gloria.
(4) The Canticle or Canticles. — This is now Gloria in Excelsis, omitted in Advent (except on Feasts) and Lent. On Easter Day a Latin farced Trisagion, "Sanctus Deu.s, qui sedes super cherubim, etc.", with optionally also the Benedicite in its abridged form, and on the Sunday in Adventu S. Joannis Baptistw the Bencdictus are sung as well. In Add. MS. 30844 the Trisagion ((S710S 6 6e6;, k.t.X.) is given in Greek (trans- literated) and Latin in this place on the Annunciation (18 Dec, the Mass for which day is in that manuscript a fuller one than the others, and like the Mass for Ad- vent Sunday in the printed IVIissal is given by way of an Ordinary of the ^lass) and the Circumcision, and the Latin farced Trisagion now used on Easter Day is given for Christmas Day. This shows that the Aju.s of St. Germanus and the Bobbio Missal was certainly the Trisagion.
(5) Oratio. — Though this takes the position of the Roman Collect, it is really a supplementary prayer to the Gloria in excelsis. It is the usual practice (though like most things Mozarabic, not invariable) for psalms, hymns, canticles, and every sort of responsory to be fol- lowed by prayers which more or less sum up the leading ideas of what they follow. This is why so many Mozar- abic, Galilean, and Celtic prayers are named with ref-
erence to what they follow — post Ajus, post Prophe- tiam, post Nomina, post Pacem etc. This Oratio on a considerable number of days merely continues the idea of the Gloria with Uttle or no reference to the day, even on the Sundays of Advent, when the Gloria itself is omitted. These are mostly in the Tempo/rale, and there are nine Orationes of frequent use; but on cer- tain days (e. g. Christmas Day, the Sunday before the Epiphany, Epiphany, Ascension, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, all the Commons, and between thirty and forty days in the Sanctorale) this Oratio refers to the day and not to the Gloria.
(6) The Prophecy. — This is a lection usually from the Old Testament, except in Paschal time, when it is from the Apocalypse. (SeeAMBRCSiANRiTE.) During Lent and other Fasts, there are two of these lections, one from one of the books of Solomon and the other from the Pentateuch or one of the Historical Books.
(7) The Hymnus Trium Puerorum occasionally fol- lows the Prophecy. This is the Benedictus es (Dan., iii, 52-5) with an abridged form of the Benedicite, the whole preceded by Dan., iii, 49-51, rather freely quoted. The fourth Council of Toledo (can. xiv) or- dered this "in omnium missarum solemnitate". It occurs in the MSS. on days when it is not given in the printed books. It used to be followed by Ps. cv, Confitemini, but now this is reduced to one verse.
(8) Psallendo (a responsory). — On the second and third Sundays and on weekdays in Lent it is a Trac- hts, which consists of psalm verses without repeti- tions, as in the Roman Rite. The Tract or Psallendo on Sundays of Lent, except Palm Sunday when the Traditio Symboli comes here, is followed by the Pre- ces, a short penitential litany, differing each Sunday. Neale points out that these are in verse, though not written so.
(9) The Epistle, or in Paschal time a lection from the Acts of the Apostles, preceded by "silentium facite", proclaimed by the deacon.
(10) The Gospel, preceded only by a short prayer "Comforta me Rex Sanctorum" and the "Munda cor meum corpusque ac labia" (the rest as in the Roman Rite), followed by the Blessing, which is not in the Ro- man form. These of course are said secretly. The giving out of the Gospel and the response and the cens- ing are similar to the Roman. After the reading the priest signs the Gospel with the cross and kisses it, say- ing: "Ave Verbum Divinum: reformatio virtutum: restitutio sanitatum."
(11) The Offertory. — This consists of: (a) The LoMdo, a verse between two Alleluias. It is what St. Ger- manus calls the Sonus, sung during the procession of the Oblation. There is now no procession, but while it is being sung the Oblation ceremonies go on. (b) The oblation of the bread and wine, with prayers re- sembling but not identical witli the Roman. It is at the covering of the chalice with tlie fitiola (pall) that the prayer containing the words "omnium offeren- tium" (see above) is said, (c) The Blessing of the Oblation, for which two alternative prayers are given, one of which, that generally used, is the "In spiritu humilitatis" and "Veni sanctificator" of the Roman Rite, (d) The censing, with a blessing similar to the Roman blessing at the beginning of Mass, but a differ- ent prayer, (e) "Adjuvate me fratres", with re- spon.se — the Mozarabic form of the "Orate fratres". (f) The Sacrificium, which is what St. Germanus calls Laudes. This with the Lauda forms the equivalent of the Roman Offertorium, here divided in the books by the ceremonies of the Oblation, though in practice there is very little division, (g) When there are offer- ings, the priest is directed to receive them and say to the offerer: "Centuplum accipias et vitam possideas in Regno Dei." This is the remains of the Offering by the people. (See Ambrosian Rite.) The words are retained, but the offering is no longer made. This is followed in the books by the Benediclio Panis (of. the