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MOZARABIC


621


MOZARABIC


Words of Institution was not used by the Spanish Church before the mission of Zannello (see above) in 924. It was then that the practice arose of saying the Roman form, instead of what was written, and that is what is done now. In the Ximenian edition the Roman Words were not printed at first, but later were printed on separate slips and gummed on to the margin. In the later editions they appear as footnotes. Elevation is ordered in the printed Missal after the Consecration of each species.

(19) The Posl-Pridie. — St. Isidore calls it cora/(>ma(io sacramenti, "ut oblatio quje Deo offertur sanctificata per Sanctum Spiritum corpori Christi et sanguine confirmetur " , which seems as if he took it to be an Epikiesis (q. v.), needed to complete the consecration, but (in Ep. vii ad Redemptorem, sect. 2) he speaks also of "verba Dei . . . scilicet. Hoc est corpus meum", being the "substantia sacramenti". In the Galilean books there are several of these prayers with some sort of Invocation of the Holy Spirit, some quite unmis- takable, others quite vague. The majority have no sign of any Epikiesis, and this is the case with the Mozarabic, perhaps fourteen or fifteen Masses have either a definite Epikiesis or what with some ingenuity and emendation can be made to look like one, while in the rest it is generally the Great Oblation, often with allusions to the day. It is followed by a fixed prayer resembling the clause Per quevi hcec omnia in the Ro- man Canon, and a second elevation preceded by "Do- minus sit semper vobiscum etc." and "Fidem quam corde credimus ore autem dicamus". On Sundays and most feasts sex capparum and quatvor capparmn the Creed is recited; this has several verbal differences from the Roman form, among others, credimus, con- fiteinur and expcctamus, vimficatorem , adorandum el con- qlorificandum, Omousion Patri, hoc est ejusdem cum Patre si(hstaiiti(e etc. St. Isidore (De Eccl. Off., I, xvi) mentions the recitation of the Creed "tempore sacrificii", but with him sacrificium sometimes means the offertory, sometimes the whole Mass. On certain days, chiefly in Lent and in votive Masses, there is an Aniiphona ad Confractionem Panis (cf. the Confrac- torium of the Ambrosian Rite), said instead of the " Fidem quam corde credimus etc." During it or the Creed the Fraction takes place. The Host is first di- vided into two halves, then one half is divided into five and the other into four parts. Seven of these par- ticles are arranged in the form of a cross, five, named Corporatio (Incarnation), Nativitas, Circumcisio, Ap- parilio (Epiphany), and Passio forming the upright part, and two, named Mors and Resurrrectio, the arms. These last are arranged on either side of the Particle Nativilas with the Gloria and Regnum, placed to- gether on one side. (For instances of complicated Fractions, see Celtic Rite; Gallican Rite.) Then the priest washes his fingers, "purget bene digitos", and, the chalice being covered, says aloud "Memento pro vi vis".

(20) The Ad Orationem Dominicam, St. Isidore's seventh and last prayer, varies with the day, and, like the Agyos after the Ad Missam Oratio is preceded by Oremus. It ends introducing the Pater Noster, sung by the priest, the choir responding Amen to each clause except "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie " when the response is "Quia Deus es". The invariable Enitiiilismus is a long intercessory prayer followed by the Commixture. The particle Regnum is held over the chalice, during Paschal time and on Corpus Christi, with the words " Vicit Leo ex tribu Juda, radix David, Alleluia. Qui sedes super cherubim, radix David, Alleluia", and then dropped into the chalice, with the words "Sancta Sanctis et conjunctio Cor- poris D. N. J. C. sit sumentibus et potantibus nobis ad veniam et defunctis fidelibus praestetur ad requiem."

(21) The Benediction. — The deacon proclaims "Hu- miliate vos ad Benedictionem", and the priest pro- nounces a Blessing in three, four, or five clauses, vari-


able according to the day, with a response of Amen to each clause. In the Gallican Rite the long Benedic- tion was reserved for bishops only, a short form (Pax et caritas D. N. J. C. et communicatio sanctorum omnium sit semper nobiscum) being said by priests. The Benedictions continued in France long after the extinction of the Gallican Rite (see Gallican Rite) and in England. In the Sarum Manual of 15.54 di- rections are given for Episcopal Benedictions, with the same preliminary proclamation as in the Mozarabic.

(22) The Communion. — The choir sing a fixed re- sponsory called Ad Accidentes, beginning "Gustate et videte", composed of Ps. xxxiii, 8, 1, 22, with Alle- luias after each verse. There are variants in Lent and Eastertide (cf. Celtic Rite; Gallican Rite). The same verses are mentioned by St. Cyril of Jerusalem and occur in some Eastern liturgies. Then follows the antiphon which answers to the Roman Comynunio which is usually "Refecti Christi Corpore et Sanguine, te laudamus, Domine. Alleluia (3)", with a variant in Lent "Repletum est gaudio os nostrum, etc." This is followed by the Post-Communion, a prayer or a Bidding Prayer variable with the day, but with a rather small selection, only a few days having sepa- rate proper Post-Communions of their own, four or five being used over and over again, one for Feasts of our Lord and another for saints' days, varied only in the name of the feast. During the singing of the Ad Ac- cidentes and Comm.unio the priest makes his commun- ion, with private devotions not unlike those of the Ro- man Rite, but including the two "Ave in a!vum, etc.", passages which are found also in the Sarum and other local Missals. Just before his communion the priest holds the particle Regnum over the chalice saying aloud "Memento pro mortuis" (or "pro defunctis", for both forms are found).

(23) The Dismissal. — Of this there are two forms, that for ordinary days being "Missa acta est in no- mine D. N. J. C. perficiamus cum pace. R. Deo gra- tias", and that for greater feasts, "Solemnia completa sunt in nomine D. N. J. C. votum nostrum sit accep- tum cum pace. R. Deo gratias". Then follows " Sal ve Regina " with versicle and responses and the col- lect, "Concede nos famulos tuos etc.", which of course is not Mozarabic, and after that the Blessing "In unitate Sancti Spiritus benedicat vos Pater et Filius".

It will be seen that the fixed elements of this Mass are very few. These are: the Preparations; generally the Gloria; the Prayers etc. of the Offertory; the Nomina; the Pax, but not its prayer; the Sursum Corda; the Sanelus; the Recital of the Institution with its preliminary prayer; a prayer following the Post- Pridie; the Creed; the priest's part of the Fraction, Commixture, and Communion; the Lord's Prayer and Embolismus, but not its introduction; and the Salve Regina and Blessing. The variables, which in point of time and written space take up by far the larger pro- portion of the Mass, are: The Officium (Introit); the Oratio after the Gloria, the Prophecy, the Psallendo; the Epistle; the Gospel; the Lauda; the Sacrificium; Ad Missain Oratio; Alia Oratio; Post Nomina; Ad Pa- cern; Illatio; Post-Sanctus ; Post-Pridie; Antiphona ad Confractionem Panis; Ad Orationem Dominicam; the Benediction; Ad Accidentes; Communio; Post-Com- munion; the Dismissal. To these may be added the additional Canticles on certain days.

VI. The Occasion.al Services. — At the pres- ent day those who belong to the Mozarabic Rite use the Roman Ritual, and, as their bishop is the Archbi.shop of Toledo, who is of the Roman Rite, the Roman Pontifical is also used for them. The date at which the old Spanish Ritual and Pontifical services ceased to be u.sed is not known. The four existing MSS. of the Liber Ordinum, which contains these ser- vices, are all of the eleventh century, and belonged either to Silos or to San Millan de la Cogolla. There are none at or from Toledo, and, when Cardinal