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to Venerable Margaret Clithorow wlio siifTorod for harbmirinp him, and \'encrable I'Vaiuis Innloby. Ar- rested 'JSOi't., 15S0, and condemned to die, he escaped with two other priests. For many years he hiboured in the Nortli liecoming a recognized leader among his brother priests. Wlien the di.-i.seiisions among the imprisoned priests at Wisbecli l)rol<e out in 1595, ho with Dr. Dudley went there to arbitrate. Failing in this, together with John Colleton he set liimself to de\'ise some organization of a voluntary character among the clergy wliich might supply the want of episcopal go%'crnment much felt after the death of Cardinal Allen in 1594. Opposed by Persons, it was rendered superfluous by the appointment of an arch- priest (1599). In the ensuing controversy Mush was one of the appellant clergy who appealed to Rome against the archpricst. In connexion with this he wrote "Declaratio Motuum" and in IGO'2, with Champ- ney Bluet and Cecil, went as a deputation to Rome where for eight months they fought for their petition. Their petition, first for six bishops and then for six archpriests, was refused; but though the archpriest succeeded in maintaining his position, the appellants were acquitted of the charges of rebellion and schism. On his return to England, Mush was one of the thir- teen priests who signed the protestation of allegiance to Queen Ehzabeth (1603). In his later years he acted as assistant to two successive archpriests, Blackwell and Birkhead, in Yorkshire, but he seems to have been acting as chaplain to Lady Dor- mer in Buckinghamshire at the time of his death. His works are "The Life and Death of Mistress Mar- garet Clitherow" (written 1.5S6, first printed 1849); "An account of the sufferings of Catholics in the Northern Parts of England" (probably the same as the MS. account printed by Father Morris, S.J., in "Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers", series iii); "Declaratio Motuum" (Rouen, 1601). His diary of the deputation to Rome in 1602 is preserved in MS. in the Inner Temple, London. Dodd also says he wrote against the apostate priest Thomas Bell, and Pitts quotes his English translation of "Lectiones Panago- rali Turini", but these latter works are not now known to exist.

Ksox. Records of the English Catholirs (London, 1878, 1882); Dodd, Church History, ed. Tiekney (London, 1839—13) ; Morris, Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, series ii and iii (London, 1875- 77) ; Law. Jesuits and Seculars in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (London, 1889), and in Did. Nat. Biog. a. v.; Gillow, Bibl. Did. Eng. Cath. EdWIN BuBTON.

Music, Ecclesiastical. — By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical authority, is employed in connexion with Divine service to jjromote the glorification of God and the edification of the faithful.

Nature and Significance. — Just as St. Philip Neri spontaneously sang the prayers of the last Mass which he celebrated, so is all true religious music but an ex- alted prayer — an exultant expression of religious feel- ing. Prayer, song, the playing upon instruments, and action, when arranged by authority, constitute the elements of public worship, especially of an official liturgy. This was the case with the pagans, the Jews, and aLso in the Church from time immemorial. These elements constitute, when combined, an organic unity, in which, however, music forms a part only on .solemn occasions, and then only in accordance with the regu- lations of proi)er authority. As man owes to God that which is highest and most beautiful, music may employ on these occasions her noblest and most effec- tive means. Church music has in common with secu- lar music the combination of tones in melody and har- mony, the division of time in rhj'thm, measure, and tempo, dynamics, or distribution of power, tone-col- our in voice and instruments, the simpler and more complicated styles of composition. All these, how- ever, must be iidapted to the liturgical action, if there

be sucli, to the words uttered in prayer, to the devo- tion of the heart ; they must be calculated to edify the faithful, and in short must serve the purpose for which Divine service is held. Whenever music, instead of assuming a character of independence and mere or- nament, acts as an auxiliary to the other means of ])romoting the worship of tiod and as an incentive to good, it not oidy does not interfere with the religious ceremony, but, on the contrary, imparts to it the greatest splendour and effectiveness. Only those who are not responsive to its influence, or stubbornly cul- tivate other ways of devotion, can imagine that they are distracted in their worship by music. Appropri- ate music, on the contrary, raises man above common- place everyday thoughts into an ideal and joyous mood, rivets mind and heart on the sacred words and actions, and introduces him into the proper devotional and festive atmosphere. This appropriateness takes into account persons and circumstances, variations being introduced according to the nature and use of the texts, according to the character of the liturgical action, according to the ecclesiastical season, and even according to the various needs of the contempla- tive orders and the rest of the faithful.

Natural religious instinct urges man to honour God by means of music as well as by the other arts, and to heighten his religious exaltation by joyous singing. This significance of singing in connexion with Divine service has never been lost sight of. Under the Old Law the music of the Temple filled, in compliance with the commands of God Himself, a very elaborate role. Songs of victory of a religious nature are men- tioned in Ex., XV, and in Judges, v. Often the proph- ets are elated by sacred music. David beautified religious ceremonies by hymns and the use of instru- ments (Amos, vi, 5; II Esd., xii, 35; II Par., xxix, 25 sqq.). With him appears Asaph in the role of poet and singer, and the "Sons of Asaph" with other fami- lies were, from the days of David, organized into classes (I Par., xxv). The primitive Christian Church was, on account of external circumstances, very much restrained in its religious manifestations, and the adoption of the music of the Temple, in so far as it had survived, would have been difficult on account of the converts from paganism. Furthermore, the practice of religion on the part of the early Christians was of such a purely spiritual nature that any sensuous as- sistance, such as that of music, could be for the time easily dispensed with. Nevertheless, the words of St. Paul, even if only taken in a spiritual sense, remind one forcibly of the conception of music in the Old Tes- tament: "Speaking to yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual canticles, singing and making melody in your hearts to the Lord" (Eph., v, 19). Tertullian relates that during Divine service Holy Scripture was read and psalms sung, and that even Pliny had ascertained that the Christians honoured their Lord before dawn by singing a hymn (Apol., ii). Eusebius, in confirmation "of the regulations hereto- fore followed by the Church", (juotes the testimony of Philo, who relates that the Tlicrapciilie, during their festive repasts, sang psalms from H(jly Writ and other hymns of various kinds in solemn rhythm in monodic style with choral responsories (Hist, eccl., I, xvii). Whatever may have been the nature of the singing of the Therapeuta;, Eusebius bears testimony to the tra- ditional custom of the Church. While St. Athanasius restricted the singing of the psalms to a kind of recita- tion, St. Ambrose introduced in Milan (and the greater part of the Western world) with great success antiphonal singing of the psalms "after the manner of the East". St. Augu.stine asks himself whether it would not be more perfect to deny himself the delight derived from singing, but concludes his reflection by concurring with existing practices, and frequently tes- tifies to the customs of his time (cf. Conf., ix, 7; x, 33; In Ps. xxi and xlvi; Retr., ii, 11). St. Jerome, refer-