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harpsichord (one of the predecessors of our modern pianoforte), a lute, a riolti dn gumba (forerunner of our violoncello), an arehlute, or lute of a larK<T size, an follows: two clai'icem- bali (another primitive form of the pianoforte), two contrabassi, ten viola da brazza (violas), one double harp, two violini piccolini alia Fninccxc (violins), two organi di legno (a sort of violin played or struck with the wood of the bow), three basxi da gamba (celli) four trombones, one regale (a portable organ with only one or two stops or registers), two cornetii, one flauiitio (small fiute), one clarino (trumpet) and three Irombe sordine (muted trumpets). While this was a formi- dable sonorous body, orchestration in our present daj' sense, that is, the utilization of the various instru- ments in accordance with their nature, tone quality, and compass, and their combination, with a view to the greatest variety of tone colour and sonority, was yet to be evolved. While Giovanni Carissimi (1604- 74) in his oratorios, employs the instruments with more appreciation of their individuality than was manifested before him, it remained for his gifted pupil Alessandro Scarlatti (1657-172.5), fountler of the Neapolitan school, to establish the norm for the use of instnmients, which remained unchanged for more than a hundred years. Scarlatti's orchestra for his oratorios and operas consisted of first and second vio- lins, violas, violoncellos, basses, two oboes (from haul- bois, "high wood" developed from the ancient cala- mus, "reed"; French, chaliimeau; GeTman, schalmey), two bassoons (corresponding to the oboes in the lower octaves), and two horns. This combination of in- struments w-as still in vogue in the time of Haydn and Mozart, and was used in most of their works for the Church except that they sometimes added two flutes, two clarinets (woodwind instrument of ancient ori- gin, so called on account of the resemblance of its tones to the high tones of the clarino, or trumpet), and two trumpets. In their operas and oratorios these and contemporary masters added lijmpani (kettle- drums) and three trombones.

The instrumental idea gained such a firm hold that a very large proportion of all the music written for the Church was with orchestral accompaniment. At cathedral and other churches large orchestras were permanently endowed, "many of which sur\dve to- day, notably in Dresden, Breslau, Freiburg-in-Baden, Munich, and Vienna. In innumerable other places, the world over, the orchestra, without being always present, would be called into service on festival occa- sions. Up to the middle of the nineteenth century it was considered by composers practically impossible to interpret musically the text of the Mass or requiem without calling to their aid all the resources and means of expression afforded by a complete orchestra. While Beethoven, in his " Mass in C " and " Missa so- lemnis", as well as Cherubini in his nimierous works to liturgical texts, does not go beyond the so-called classical orchestra, that is, first and second violins, violas, cellos, basses, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, trombones, and kettle-drums, Liszt and Gounod in addition to these also employ the pic- colo (small flute), conlrafagollo, or bassoon bass, the harp, cymbals, and tuba (a bniss instrument serving as a bass to the trombone family). The extreme limit in instrumental tone display in modern times was reached, however, in Ilecfor Berlioz's "Requiem Mass", performed (18.37) for the first lime in Notre Dame, Paris. In this work all previous efforts in the way of tonal manifestation arc far .surpassed. Be- sides an orchestra of one hundred and thirty instru- ments, including si.xteen kettle-drums, the author em- ploys in the "Tuba mirum" four separate groups of brass instruments, typifying the trumpets calling from the four comers of the earth on the day of the Last

Judgment. With this work, the last word of a mind and age which still believe but no longer adore, subjectiv- ism finds its supreme manifestation, and the orchestra its most ])otenl means of expression. The Church has never encouraged, and at most only tolerated, the use (if instrunicrits. She enjoins in the "CaTcnioniale K|)isc()porum " I hat permission for their .should first be obtained from the ordinary. She holds up as her ideal the unaccompanied chant and polyphonic, a capclla, style. The Sistinc Chapel has not even an organ.

From time to time regulations have been issued governing the use of instruments and condemning ex- isting abuses. In 1728 Benedict XIII rebuked a com- munity of Benedictine nuns in Milan for using other instruments than the organ during high Mass and Vespers. He also forbade the Franciscans to use any other instrument than the organ in their conventual churches. Benedict XIV in his encyclical "Annus qui nunc vertentem" (19 February, 1749) tolerates only the organ, stringed instruments, and bassoons. Kettle-drums, horns, trombones, oboes, flutes, pianos, and mandolins are prohibited. In the "Regola- niento" of 18S4, flutes, trombones, and kettle-drums arc permitted on account of the improved manner in which they are now used as compared with former times. In the name of Gregory XVI, the Cardinal- Vicar of Rome, Patrizi, prohibited (1842) the use of instruments in the Roman churches, with the excep- tion of a few to be used in a becoming manner in ac- companying the singing, and then only after permis- sion had been secured from the proper authority. This order was renewed in 18.56 by the same cardinal in the name of Pius IX. Pius X, in his "Motu pro- prio" on church music (22 November, 1903) in para- graph IV, says, "Although the music proper to the Church is purely vocal music, music with the accom- paniment of the organ is also permitted. In some special cases, within due limits and with the proper regards other instruments may be allowed, but never without the special license of the ordinary, accord- ing to the prescription of the ' Cseremoniale Episco- porum'. As the chant slioidfl always have the first place, the organ or instruments should merely sustain and never suppress it. It is not permitted to have the chant preceded by long preludes, or to have it inter- rupted with intermezzo pieces", etc. Among those who have recently written, within the prescribed limits, works for voices and instruments for liturgical use, are, I. Mitterer, G. J. E. Stehle, M. Brosig, Max Filke, George Zeller, L. Bonvin, S.J., C. Greif h, F. X. Witt, P. Griesbacher, J. G. Meuerer, and J. Rheinberger. The present trend is, however, decidedly away from the instrumental idea and back to the purely vocal style. And it is recognized, and in many places acted upon, that the new version of the liturgical chant, proposed to the Catholic world by Pius X, gains its full beauty and efTectiveness only when sung without instrumen- tal accompaniment of any kind.

Krutscheck. Die Kirchenmusik nach dem WiUen der Kirche (Ratisbon, 1897) ; Riemann, Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, II, pt. I (Leipzig. 1907) ; Jcngmann, Aesthetik (Freiburg, 1886) ; Neff, Geschichle der deiUschen Inslrumenlalmusik (.Leipzig, 1902); WooL- DRiDGE, The Oxford History of Music, II (1905); Gietmann, Musik-Aestketik (Freiburg, 1900).

Joseph Otten.

Musti, a titular see of Proconsular Africa, suffra- gan of Carthage. This town, which was a Roman iniiniripiiim at an early date, is mentioned by Ptol- emy, IV, 3, 33, the " Itinerarium Antonini ", the Peu- tinger Table, and the Ravenna geographer, Vibius Sequester, who narrates the killing at this place of an enormous serpent by Regulus. Its ruins, called Mest Henshir, are seen in the vicinity of the koubba of the marabout Sidi Abd-er-Rehou, between Teboursouk and KefT (Tunis). Worthy of mention are two fine gates, and a triumphal arch. The inscriptions call