Open main menu

Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/726

This page needs to be proofread.


MUZZARELLI


600


MYNDUS


chonse detcrminationcm. Quinilopiip pars quarta" (edited in Markham, "The Cincluma Hpccirs of New Granada", London, ISO"). The tables, whicli Mulls selected for this work, were pulilislnd in 1S70 in fac- simile by Triana ("Nouvclles iJtudes sur les Quin- quina", Paris). ThrouKh these writings it became evident, as some special investigators confessed, that Mutishad jienet rated deeply into the study of the cin- chonas of Central Colombia. ItmayhemcntionedtliMl Mut is distinguished four species of cinchonas willi an ofReinalbark, and headde<l to them twenty-four v.-iric- ties. For otlier manuscri])ts of ISIutis see Cohnciro; a part of Mutis's correspondence is to be found in I lie work: "A selection of the correspondence of Linnicus and other naturali.sts" (London, 1881).

CoLUEiRO, Ija Boldnica y los BoUinicoa de ta Peninsula Ilispano- Lusitana (Madrid, iS5S); Markham, Peruvian Bark- (London, 1S80); ScHCUACHER, Sadammkanische Studien (Berlin, 1SS4). M. ROMPEL.

Muzzarelli, Alfonso, a learned Italian Jesuit, b. 22 .\ugust. 17-10, at Ferrara; d. 2.5 May, 1S1.3, at Paris. He entered the .Jesuit novitiate on 20 October, 1768, and taught granunar at Bologna and Imola. After the suppression of the order in 1773 he received a benefice at Ferrara and, somewhat later, was made director of the CoUegio dei Xobili at Parma. Pius V'll summoned him to Rome, and appointed him the- ologian of the P(eni1entiaria. 'When Pius VII was ex- iled in 1809, Muzzarelli was also obUged to leave Rome and was transported to Paris, where he spent his re- maining life at the convent of the Dames de Saint- Michel. He wrote numerous theological, philosophi- cal, and ascetical works. His chief production is a collection of philosophico-theological treatises pub- lished repeatedly under the title "II buon uso della Logica in materia di Religione" (6 vols., Foligno, 1787-9), with additions by the author (10 vols., Rome, 1807; 11 vols., Florence, 1821-3). The collec- tion contains sketches on the theological questions of the day such as — abuses in the Church, the temporal power of the pope, religious toleration, ecclesiastical immunity, riches of the Church and its clergy, pri- macy and infallibility of the pope, auricular confes- sion, religious orders, indulgences, Gregory VII, moral liberty, etc. This collection of treatises, with the ex- ception of the last five, was translated into Latin by Zeldmayer de Buzitha ("Bonus usus logica; in ma- teria reUgionis", Kaschau, 1815-7). A French trans- lation, containing 42 treatises, was published at Brus- sels in 1837. Two other important productions of Muzzarelli are: "L'Emilio disingannato " (4 vols., Siena, 1782-3) and " Conf utazione del contratto soci- ale di Gian Jacopo Rousseau" (2 vols., Foligno, 1794) — the former is a refutation of Rousseau's "Emile", the latter of his " Contrat social ". The most popular of Muzzarelli's many ascetical works is "II mese di Maria o sia di Maggio" (Ferrara, 178.5) of which about 100 editions have been issued (new ed., Bo- logna, 1901). It has been translated into EngUsh "The Month of Mary or the Month of May", Lon- don, 1848, 187. . ); Spanish ("Las Vegas", New Mexico, 1887, 1888); Portuguese (Oporto, 1890); French (Paris, 1881, and often previously); Arabian (4 ed., Beyrouth, 1872) ; and adapted to the German (Mainz, 1883). Another little work that has been translated into English is: " II buon uso delle vacanze" (Parma, 1798). Its English title is: "A Method of spending the Vacation [jrofitably. Addressed to the Youth who frequent the Schools of the Society of Jesus" (London and Dublin, 1848).

SoMMERVooEL, Bild. rte la C. dc Jesus, V (Brussels and Paris, 1894), 1488-1514: IX (1900), 708-710; Hcbter, Nomenclalor.

Michael Ott.

Mykonos. See Tixos, Diocese of.

Mylapur. See Saint Thomas of Mylapuk, Diocese of.


Mylasa, a titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aplirodisias, or Stauropolis, in Caria. This city, the ancient capital of Caria, was the home of the kings of the province before that honour passed to Ilalicarnas- sus. It was situated on a fertile plain at the foot of a mountain on which there are great quarries of the beautiful white marble which was used for the con- struction or decoration of the city's temph's and other buildings. Mylasa was taken by Labicniis in the civil wars. In the Gra>co-Roman jxTiod it enjoyed a sea- son of brilliant prosperity, and the three neighbouring towns of Olymos, Labranda, and Euremos were in- cluded within its limits. Its finest temples were that dedicated to Zeus Osogoa, which recalled to Pausanias (VIII, X, 3) the Acropolis of Athens, and those of Zeus Karios and of Zeus Labrandenos, or St ratios (Strabo, XIV, ii, 23). Mylasa is frequently mentioned by the ancient writers. At the time of Strabo the city boasted two remarkable orators, Euthydemos and Hybreas. Various inscriptions tell us that the Phry- gian cults were represented here by the worshij) of Sabazios; the Egyptian, by that of Isis and Osiris. There was also a temple of Nemesis.

Among the ancient bishops of Mylasa, was St. Ephrem (fifth century), whose feast was kept on 23 January, and whose relics were venerated in the neighbouring city of Leuke. Cyril and his successor, Paul, are mentioned by Nicephorus Callistus (Hist, eccl., XIV, 52) and in the Life of St. Xene. Le Quien mentions the names of three other bishops (Oriens christianus, I, 921), and since his time the inscriptions discovered refer to two others, one anonymous (C. I. G., 9271), the other named Ba.sil, who built a church in honour of St. Stephen (Bulletin de correspondance hell6nique, XIV, 616). The St. Xene referred to above was a noble virgin of Rome who, to escape the marriage which her parents wished to force upon her, donned male attire, left her country, changed her name of Eusebia to that of Xene (stranger), and lived first on the island of Cos, then at Mylasa. The site of the city is now occupied by a little village called Milas, in Mylassa, inhabited by a few hundred schismatic Greeks, and containing some fine ruins. The Cyclo- pean walls surrounding the sacred enclosure of the temple of Zeus Osogoa are still visible, as well as a row of fourteen columns. Pococke (Travels, II, 2), in the eighteenth century, saw the temple of Augustus and of Rome, the materials of which have since been taken by the Turks to build a mosque. There is also a two- storied tomb, called Distega, believed to be a simpli- fied copy of the famous tomb of Mausolus, who was a native of Mylasa.

Chandler, Asia Minor, 234; Leake. .1 m-i W/.-..r, 23n; FEly

I.OWS, Discoveries in Lycia, 67; Ramsay, //' ' . -w imphy of

Asia Minor (JjonAon, 1890); Idem, Thr < / in pries of

PArwia (Oxford, 1895); TEXiER,jlstejl/i' 1 :i , rMil),648;

Le Bab and Waddington, Inscriptions d'A. .< .l/i,.:i/;i, n. 380- 482; Bulletin de Correspondance helUnique,l,J2-:iti; V. 31^1, 96- 119; X, 433; XI, 459; XII, 8-37; XIV, 615-623; XV, 540-544; XIX, 615-623; XXII, 421^39; Calmels in Echoa d'Orient, II, 352-356; Deschamps, Sur les routes d'Asie (Paris, 1894), 324 sq.

S. Salaville.

Myndus, a titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stau- ropolis. This city, known through its coins and the quite frequent mention made of it by ancient histori- ans and geographers, was inhabited by a Greek colony from Troezen. It was situated on the coast of Caria, lying a little northwest of Halicarnassus on the most northerly of the three Dorian peninsulas. Although a seaport and fortified town, its role was an unimpor- tant one, the chief event in its history being t hat, aided by Halicarnassus, it repulsed an attack by Alexander the Great. The "Notitis episcopatuum " allude to it as late as the twelfth or thirteenth century as one of the suffragan sees of Stauropolis. However, only four of its bishops are known: Archelaus, who attended the Council of Ephesus in 431; Alphius, who ;issisted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451; John who was pres-