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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/800

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NAZARIUS


728


NEALE


tovm and from the beginning was noted for his spirit- uality and love of study. It is most probable that he studied philosophy and theology at the University of Bologna. Ho taught with great success in various schools of his order in Italy. In 1592 he was sent by Clement \'I1I and the General of the Dominicans, Beccaria, to accompany the Apostolic Nuncio to Prague to combat the pre\ailing heresie.s. There he spent three years teaching in the 6lii(tuim Gcnerale of the province, lecturing on theology in the university, preaching, and defending the Faith against the errors of the innovators. Returning to Italy in 1596 he became regent of studies in the convent at Milan. The following year the pope appointed him to defend in a public ili.-;putation at Chiavenna the Catholic doctrine of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass against Calvinistic preachers. His learning and eloquence won for him such a triumph that his services were sought in other parts of the country. In 1620 the citizens of Milan chose him as ambassador to the Court of Philip III of Spain to adjust certain matters of importance to Milan; in May, 1622 he represented as deiinitor the province of Lombardy at the general chapter held at Milan. He spent the close of his life at Bologna where he occupied himself with teaching and writing. Of his works the following are the most important: "Coramentaria et Controversioe in pri- mam partem Summae S. Thoma-" (Bologna, 1620) and "in tertiam partem SummaeS. Thoma>" (Bologna, 1625); "Opuscula varia theologica et philosophica' (Bologna, 1630) in which are contained the acts of the above mentioned disputation; " De SS. Patrum et doc- torum Ecelesije auetoritate in doctrina theologica" (Bologna, 1633).

QufiTiF-EcHARD, S.5. Ord. Pried., II, 544; TouRON. Horn. III. de fardre de S. Dom.. V, 258-68.

Joseph Schroeder.

Nazarius and Celsus, Saints, Martyrs. — The only historical iiif(irin:itii)n which we possess regard- ing these two saints is the discovery of their bodies by St. Ambrose. Paulinus relates (Vita Ambrosii, x.xxii- xxxiii) that Ambrose, at some time within the last three years of his life, after the death of the Emperor Theodosius (d. 395), discovered in a garden outside the walls of Milan the body of St. Nazarius, with severed head and still stained with blood, and that he caused it to be carried to the Basilica of the Apostles. In the same garden Ambrose likewise discovered the body of St. Celsus, which he caused to be transported to the same basilica. Obviously a tradition regarding these martyrs was extant in the Christian community of Milan which led to the finding of the two bodies. A later legend, without historical foundation, places the martyrdom of these witnesses to the faith during the persecution of Nero, and describes with many details the supposed joumeyings of St. Nazarius through Gaul and Italy. He is also brought into relation with the two martyrs Gervasius and Protasius. Paulinus says distinctly (1. c.) that the date on which Nazarius suffered martyrdom is unknown. The discourse eulogizing the two saints, attributed to St. Ambro.se (Sermo Iv, in P. L., XVII, 715 sqq.), is not genuine. St. Paulinus of Nola speaks in praise of St. Nazarius in his Poema xxvii (P. L., LXI, 6.5S). A magnificent silver reliquary with in- teresting figures, dating from the fourth century, was found in the church of San Nazaro in Milan (Venturi, "Storiadeir arteitaliana", I, Milan, 1901, fig. 44.5-49). The feast of the two martyrs, with that of Sts. Victor and Innocent, is on 28 July.

MoMBRiTica, Sanchmrium, II, fol. 179 v-184 v; Ada SS., Julii, VI, .503-5.3.'): Analecia BoUandiana. II (1883). 302-307; Bibli- otheca fiaaiograpfiica latina, II. 881-882; DuFODRCQ, Etude sur les 'Getta Marlurum' romains, II (Paris, 1907), 61 sqq.; Savio, in Ambrosiana (Milan, 1897); Puricelli. De «s. vuirlyribus Sazario et CeUo, ac Protasio et Gervasio, Mediolani Kub Xerone ctrsis. deque banticis in quibu/i eorum corpora quieacunt (Milan. 1656).

J. P. KiRSCH.


Nazarius and Companions, Saints. In the Roman Martyrology and that of Bede for 12 June mention is made of four Roman martyrs, Basilides, Cyrinus, Nabor, and Nazarius, who suffered death under Diocletian. Their names were taken from the "Martyrologium Hieronyanuni", in the Berne MS. of which (ed. De Rossi-Duschesne, Acta SS., Nov. II 1771) we read: Roma-, via Aurcli.a miliario V, Basiledis, Tribuli, Nagesi, Magclaldis, Zahini, .\ureli, Cirini, Nabori, Nazari, Donatcll;[>, Sccumhc. The second name in the list, Tribulus, is derived from a place-name, Tripoli, as is evident from the Echter- nach MS., and those following it have also an African origin. In an ancient itinerary to the graves of the Roman martyrs (De Rossi, "Roma Sotterranea", I, 183) mention is made of a mortuary chapel of a mar- tyr Basilides on the Via Aurelia; he is another Roman saint whose feast is on 10 June. The group of three Ronian saints, Cyrinus, Nabor, Nazarius, to which was added later Basilides, has in the "Sacramentarium Gelasianuin" (ed. Wilson, Oxford, 1894, 174-5) its special form of invocation in the Canon of the Mass. The date and the circumstances of the deaths of these Roman martyrs are unknown. The bones of Saint Nazarius and Nabor were tran.sferred by Bishop Chrodegang of Metz to his diocese (Mon. Germ. Hist., Script., II, 268).

Acta SS., June, II, 511 sqq.; Qdentin. Les martyrologes hist, du moyen-Age (Paris. 1908). 51. .325, 373, etc.; Urbain, Bin Mar- tyrolog. der chrisll. Gemeinde zu Rom (Leipzig, 1901), 156 sq.

J. P. KiRSCH.

Nazianzus, titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia

Tertia. Nazianzus was a small town the history of which is completely unknown. It is the modern vil- lage of Nenizi east of Ak-Serai (formerly Archelais), in the villayet of Koniah, but has sometimes been wrongly identified with Diocaesarea. At the begin- ning of the fourth century Nazianzus was suffragan to Ca-sarea; under Valens it formed part of Cappadocia Secunda, the metropolis of which was Tyana. Later it depended on Cappadocia Tertia and on Mocessus, and finally became a metropolitan see under the Em- peror Diogenes. In 1370 it was united to the metro- politan See of Ceesarea. Up to the year 1200, four- teen of its bishops are known. Its name is inseparably connected with its illustrious doctor and poet-bishop, St. Gregory.

Smith. Diet. Greek and Roman Geog., a. w: Diocaesarea, Nazi- anzus; Ramsay. Asia Minor, 285; Le Quien. Oriens christ. (1740), I, 409; Miklosich and Muller, Acta palriarchalus Con- stantinop., I (Vienna, 1860), 468, 536; see Muller's notes to Ptolemy, ed. Didot, I, 878.

S. PetridJis.

Neale, Leonard, second Archbishop of Baltimore, b. near Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, 15 Oct., 1746; d. at Georgetown, D. C, IS June, 1817. He was a descendant of Captain James Neale, the founder of the family in America, who settled in Mary- land as early as 1642. At twelve Leonard was sent to the Jesuit College at St. Omers in French Flanders. Thence he went to Bruges, and later to Liege, where he was ordained a Jesuit priest. On the suppression of the Society of Jesus, Father Neale, together with the English Jesuits, repaired to England, where he en- gaged in pastoral work for four years, but in response to his petition for a foreign mission, he was assigned to Demarara, in British Guiana, South America, where he laboured from 1779-83. Discouraged by the slow improvement of the people, and with health impaired by the climate, he set sail for America in January, 1783, arriving in Maryland in April, associating him- self with his former Jesuit brethren of the Society of Jesus, among them the Rev. John Carroll. During the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, in 1793, the two priests of that city were stricken, and Father Neale gladly took their place. For nearly six years he remained there, acting as vicar-general to the then