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1904), Dupont, and Lcpidi in Belgium; Farges and Dormet de Vorges (1910) in France, who with other schohirs carried on the work of restoration before the Holy See gave it solemn approval and encouragement. Pius IX, it is true, in various letters, recognized its importance ; but it was the encyclical " ^Eterni Patris ' ' of Leo XIII (4 Aug., 1879) that imparted to neo-Scho- lasticism its definitive character and quickened its de- velopment. This document sets forth the principles by which the movement is to be guided in a progres- sive spirit, and by which the medieval doctrine is to take on new life in its modern environment. "If," says the pope, "there be anything that the Scholastic doctors treated with excessive subtlety or with insuf- ficient consideration, or that is at variance with well founded teachings of later date, or is otherwise im- probable, we by no means intend that it shall be pro- posed to our age for imitation. . . . We certainly do not blame those learned and energetic men who turn to the profit of philosophy their own assiduous labours and erudition as well as the results of modern investi- gation; for we are fully aware that all this goes to the advancement of knowledge."

In Italy, the movement was vigorous from the start. The Accademia di San Tommaso, founded in 1874, published, up to 1891, a review entitled "La Scienza Itahana". Numerous works were produced by Zigliara (1833-93), SatoUi (1839-1909), Liberatore (1810-92), Barberis (1847-96), Schiffini (1841-1906), de Maria, Talamo, Lorenzelli, Ballerini, Matussi, and others. The Italian writers at first laid special em- phasis on the melapliysical features of Scholasticism, without paying sullic.ient attention to the sciences or to the history of philosophy. Recently, however, this situation has undergone a change which promises excellent results.

From Italy the movement spread into the other European countries and found supporters in Germany such as Kleutgen, Stockl, the authors of the "Philoso- phia Lacensis", published at Maria Laach by the Jesuits (Pesch, Hontheim, Cathrein), Gutberlet, Com- mer, Willmann, Kaufmann, Glossner, Grabmann, and Schneid. These scholars have made valuable contri- butions to the history of philosophy, especially that of the Middle Ages. Stockl led the way with his "Ge- schichte d. Philosophic des Mittelalters" (Mainz, 1864-66). Ehrle and Denifle (q. v.) founded in 1885 the " Archiv fiir Literatur u. Kirchengesch. d. Mittel- alters", and the latter edited the monumental "Char- tularium" of the University of Paris. In 1891, Von Hertling and Baumker began the publication of their "Beitrage zur Gesch. d. Phil, des Mittelalters".

Belgium has been particularly favoured. Leo XIII e.stablished (1891) at Louvain the "Institut de philosophic" for the special purpose of teaching the doctrine of St. Thomas together with history and the natural sciences. The Institute was placed in charge of Mgr (now Cardinal) Mercier whose "Cours de philosophie" has been translated into the principal languages of Europe.

In France, besides those already mentioned, Vallet, Gardair, Fonsegrive, and Piat have taken a prominent part in the movement; in Holland (Amsterdam) de Groot; in Switzerland (Freiburg), Mafldonnet; in Spain, Orti y Lara, Urrdburu,. Gomez Izqmerdo; m Mexico, Garcia; in Brazil, Santroul; in Hungary, Kiss and Pecsi; in England, Clarke, Maher, John Rickaby, Joseph Rickaby, Boedder (Stonyhurst Series) ; in the United States, Coppens, Poland, Brother Chrysostom, and the professors at the Catholic University (Shana- han, Turner, and Pace).

Neo-Scholasticism has been endorsed byfourCatho- lic Congresses: Paris (1891) ; Brussels (1895) ; Freiburg (1897); Munich (1900). A considerable number of reviews have served as its exponents: "DivusThomas' (1879-1903); "Rivista Italiana di filosofia neo-sco- lastica" (Florence, since 1909); "Annales de Philoso-

phie Chr^tienne" (Paris, since 1830); "Revue nfio- scolastique de Philosophie" (Louvain, since 1894); "Revue de Philosophie" (Paris, since 1900); "Revue des Sciences philosophiques et theologiques " (Kain, Belgium, since 1907); "Revue Thomiste" (Paris, since 1893); " Philosophisches Jahrbuch fiir Philoso- phic und spekulative Theologie" (Paderborn, since 1887); "St. Thomas Blatter" (Ratisbon, since 1888); B6lcseleti-Foly6irat (Budapest, since 1886); "Revista Lulliana" (Barcelona, since 1901); "CienzaTomista" (Madrid, since 1910). In addition to these, various periodical publications not specially devoted to phi- losophy have given neo-Scholasticism their cordial support.

Various commentaries on the Encyclical ^terni Patris: Van Weddingen, L'Eiicyctiquede S.S, Leo XIII et la restauration de la philosophie chretienne (Brussels, 1880); Schneid, Die Philosophie des hi. Thomas und ihre Bedeutung fur die Gegenwart (Wurzburg, 1881); RoYcE, Pope Leo^s philosophical movement and its relutions to modern thought in Rev. Cath. Pedag. (1903); Mercier, Les ori- gines de la psychologie contemporaine (2nd ed., Louvain, 1908) ; De WuLF, Scholasticism old and new, an introduction to scholastic phi- losophy, medieval and modern, tr. Coffey (Dublin, 1907) ; Idem, In- troduction a la philosophie neo-scolastique (Louvain and Paris, 1904) ; Perbier, The Revival of Scholastic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1909) ; Le mouvement neo-thomiste, periodical bulletin published in Revue neo-scolastique de Philosophie (Lou- vain) ; Santroul, Was ist neu-scholastische Philosophic (Munster, 1909) ; Garcia, Tomismo y neo thomismo (San Luia Potosi, 1905) ; Talamo, II rinnovamento del pensiero tomisiico e la scienza modema (Siena, 1878); Fhischkopf, Die Psychologie der neuen Ldwener Schule (Lucerne, 1908) ; Besse, Deux centres du mouvement thomiste, Rome et Lou.ain (Louvain, 1902) ; Telzer. L' Institut superieur de philosophie 1830-1904 (Louvain, 1904) ; Habrich, Die neu-scho- lastische Philosophie der Loewener Schule, introduction to German tr. of Mercier, Psychologie (Kempten, 1906); Coffey, Philoso- phy and the Sciences at Louvain, Appendix to De Wulf's Scholas- ticism Old and New; Arnaiz Marcellido, El Instituto superior de filosofia en la universidad catolica de Lovaina (Madrid, 19(31); Van Becelaere, La philosophie en Amirique depuis les origines jusqu'a nos jours (New York, 1904) ; Blanc, Histoire de la philoso- phie et particuUhement de la philosophie contemporaine,^ III (Lyons, 1896); Eucken, Neuthomismus und die neuere Wissen- schaft in Fhilosoph. Monatshefte (1888); Idem, Thomas von Aquino und Kant. Ein KaMpf zweier Welten in Kantstudien (1901); Idem, Das WissenschaftlidhesCenturumdesheutigen Thomistnus {Mnnich, 1904): G6MEZ IzQuiEBDO in Rivista di Aragon (1903); Conde, Una excursidn filosdfica por Espafia in Revista ibero-americana (1902); Mercier, Discours d'ouverture du cours de philosophic de S. Thomas (Louvain, 1882); Pace, St. Thomas and Modern Thought in Cath. Univ. Bulletin (1896); Picavet, Le mouvement neo-thomiste in Revue Philosophique (1S92; 1896; 1902); Viel, Le mouvement thomiste au X I \ / -/. i" A'- rue Thomiste (1909 and 1910); The Value of Schnl. r- '.,,, Judgment of a special

Committee of the Privy r..„ / ' after Pleadings and evi-

dence learned on October I : < < ' " (Dublin, 1909); Maher, Psychology (London and New "lork, 1905); Joyce, Principles of Logic (London and New York, 1908).

M. De Wulf.

Nephtali (A. V., Naphtali), sixth son of Jacob and Bala (Gen., xxx, 8). The name is explained (ibid.) by a paranomasia which causes no small per- plexity to commentators. Modern interpreters, fol- lowing Simonis and Gesenius, translate it "Wrestlings of God have I wrestled [D. V., "God hath compared me"] with my sister, and I have prevailed." According to this rendering, Nephtalia would mean "my wrest- ling", or simply "wrestling". Pseudo- Jonathan, commenting on Gen., xlix, 21, tells us Nephtali was the first to announce to Jacob that Joseph was alive; in another passage of the same Targum, Nephtali is mentioned among the five whom Joseph presented to Pharaoh (Gen., xlvii, 2). According to the apocry- phal "Testament of the twelve Patriarchs", he died in his one hundred and thirty-second year and was buried in Egvpt. These details, however, are unre- liable; in pomt of fact, we know nothing with cer- tainty beyond the fact that he had four sons: Jaziel, Guni, .Jeser, and Sallem (Gen., xlvi, 24; Num., xxvi, 48sqq.;I Par., vii, 13).

The Tribe of Nephtali counted 53,400 men "able to go forth to war" (Num., i, 42), being thus the sixth in importance among the tribes of Israel. The second census brought it down- to the eighth place, and re- ported only 45,400 warriors (Num., xxvi, 48-.50). During the wanderings of the Israelites in the desert, the tribe of Nephtali, under the command first o£