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the publications ©f the Plain Song and MedifFval Music Society (London, since ISSS). A good hand-book ia Wagner, Neumen- kunde, second part of his Ein/ilhrung in die Gregorianischen Melo- dien (Freiburg, 1905). Also, Gregorian Melodies by the Benedic- tines of Stanbrook (London, 1897) ; Fleischer, Neumen-Studien. part I (Leipzig. 1895); part II (Leipzig. 1897); part III (Ber- lin, 1904): MoLiTOR, Deutsche Choral-Wiegendrucke, (Ratisbon, 1904) : Thibaut, Origine Byzantine de la Notation Neumatique de I'Egtise Laline (Paris, 1907). On Byzantine notation see also RiEMANN. Die Byzantinische Notenschrifl im 10. bis 13. Jahrhundert (Leipzig. 1909). On the rhythmical signification of the neums: MocQUEREATJ, Lc Nombre Musical Gregorian, I (Tournai, 1908).

H. Bewerunge.

Neumann, Johann Balthasar, b. 1687 at Eger; d. 1753 at ^^'urzbu^g, master of the rococo style and one of the greatest and most productive artists of the eighteenth century; distinguished as a decorator, but more so as an architect. He came from Eger to Wurzburg as a cannon founder, and served chiefly with the French army. After he had travelled to perfect himself as an architect, he followed that profession in southern Germany and on the Rhine, entering into such successful competition with the French masters of the period that de Cotte and Boffrand, who judged his plans for the episcopal palace at Wurzburg, after- wards eagerly laid claim to the authorship. WTiile in the service of Prince-Bishop Franz von Schonbom (1719), Neumann laid the cornerstone of the palace (1720). It is ostentatious but habitable, a vast rec- tangle, 544 ft. by 169 ft., with five well laid out courts and three entrance gates ornamented with pilasters, columns, and balconies. The throne room with the splendid adjoining state apartments, and the court chapel, although not externally remarkable, excel all the rest in sumptuous splendour with an enormous outlay in material and skill. The baroque style of the edifice is here replaced by the most finished decora- tive rococo. The details are frequently of marvellous beauty; the arrangement, notwithstanding the over- crowding, is not inharmonious, although in combina- tion it is bizarre and whimsical. The rococo artist obviously intends to produce not only picturesque effects, but a demonstration of his unrestricted power over material substances. The interior decorations for a palace built at Bruchsal for another Schonbom, Bishop of Speyer, are magnificent, though simpler. For a third Schonbom he built a castle at Coblenz which was likewise distinguished for immense, har- monious proportions and splendid arrangement. A palace in Werneck is also his work. He completed the designs for palaces in Vienna, Carlsruhe, etc. The cathedral of Speyer, destroyed by the French array, was restored by Neumann with a clever adaptation of the existing conditions. In the facade, which was later removed, he followed the prevailing taste in every de- tail. In the restoration of the west side of Mainz cathedral he was unsuccessful, and more so with his piecework on the cathedral of Wtirzburg. In addition to these restorations he built the Pilgrims' church at Vierzehnheiligen, and the collegiate church at Neres- heim, both important buildings, with oval .spires, vast areas, and stately proportions. They are in rococo style, which is no longer attributed entirely to him. Among his other works are the Dominican church at Wiirzburg, the family chapel of the Schonborns in the same place, and the church at Grosweinstein. He made numerous designs for parterres, buildings for practical purposes, and objects of handicraft. He was a product of his age, though he towered above it by reason of the unusual artistic talent with which nature had endowed him. More recent times have, within certain limits, justified his choice of style.

DOHME, Gesch. der deutschen Baukunst (Berlin, 1885); Forster, Gesch. der deutschen Kunsl, III (Leipzig, 1855) : Kuhn, Allg. Kunstgesch. (New York, Cincinnati, Chicago, 1909).


Neumann, John Nepomucene, Venerable, fourth Bishop of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U. S. A., b. at Prachatitz, Bohemia, 28 March, 1811, erroneously set

down as Good Friday by his biographers; d. at Phila- delphia, 5 January, I860. From childhood he evinced signs of a vocation to the priesthood, and entered the seminary of Budweis in 1831. A profound theologian, thoroughly versed not only in all branches of sacred learning but in the natural sciences as well, particu- larly in botany, he spoke fluently many Slavic dialects and at least eight modern languages, besides being master of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. When Bishop of Philadelphia he learned Irish to help the Irish im- migrants in his diocese. Finishing his course at the University of Prague with distinction in August, 1835, he returned to Budweis, his native diocese, for ordination. While at the seminary, the letters of Father Baraga, afterwards Bishop of Marquette, Michigan, written to the Leopold Missionary Soci- ety, inspired Neu- mann with the desire of conse- crating himself to the American mis- si ons. Accord- ingly, while yet a seminarian he landed in Amer- ica (2 June, 1836), was adopted, and (25 June, 18:;(il ordained by Bi.-;li- op Dubois of New York, who sent him without delay to western New York, where he laboured for four years amid incred- ible hardships. In 1840 he entered the Redemptorist Congregation, and was the first of its members pro- fessed in America, 16 January, 1S42. For three years Neumann was superior of the Redemptorists at Pittsburg, where he built the church of St. Philo- mena and by labours especially among the German- speaking people, won the gratitude and praise of Bishop O'Connor. In 1S46 he was made vice-pro- vincial of the Redemptorists in America, and in 1852 at the suggestion of Archbishop Kenrick of Baltimore Pius IX gave Father Neumann a command under obedience to accept the Bishopric of Philadeliihia, to which he was coiLsecrated by Archbishop Kenrick at St. Alphonsus, Baltimore, 28 March, 1S.52. In his solicitude for his flock he visited the l;irg(-r congrega- tions of his diocese every year and the siiiullcr ones every two years, remaining several tlay.s in the coun- try places, preaching, hearing confessions, confirming, visiting, and anointing the sick. He once walked twenty-five miles and back to confirm one boy.

Indcfaligiible in the cause of education, both ecclesi- astical and secular, he raised the standard of study and iliscipliiic at the dioce-san seminary of St. Charles Borromeo, and founded (1859) an ecclesiastical pre- paratory college, to this day a credit and a blessing to the great diocese of Philadelphia. One of his first acts was to provide Catholic schools. At his conse- cration (1852) there were but two parochial schools in Philadelphia; at his death eight years later, their num- ber was nearly one hundred. The boys he entrusted to the Christian Brothers, and the girls to difl'erent sisterhoods: St. Joseph, Charity, Immaculate Heart of Mary, Notre Dame of Namur and Notre Dame of Munich. These last he helped to establish firmly in the United States, and befriended in many ways. He introduced the Sisters of the Hoh- from France to take charge of an industrial sciiool. .'\t the advice of Pius IX he founded the Philadelphia branch of the Sisters of St. Francis, and he was also the staunch