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friend of thp Colorcil Olihite Sisters in Baltimore, whom by his tact and charily lie sa\cd from dissolu- tion. In five years he erected fifty churches and com- pleted the exterior of the cathedral. Conspicuous at the Kirst Plenary Council of Baltimore (18.')2), he was one of the American bishops invited by Pius IX to Rome in lSo4 for the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. Noted for his devotion to the Most IMe.sscd .Sacrament, Neumann was the first American bishop to introduce the Forty Hours devo- tion into his diocese in lSr)3; he also inaugurated the practice now in vogue in many places of reciting the Litany of the Blessed \irgin and the Rosary before High Ma.s,s on Sundays and Holy Days. His remains lie interred in a vault before the altar in the lower chapel of St. Peter's Redemptorist church, Philadel- phia. Neumann left no i>ul)lished works except two catechisms of Christian Doctrine, which received the approbation of the First I'lenary Council of Baltimore, a Bible histor>',confraternity manuals, a Latin pamph- let on the I'or'ty Hours, and Acts of the synods held by him every t wo years. His p;istoral letters are remark- able for their solidity, beauty, and unction. On 15 December, 1S96, he received the title of Venerable and the authorities of Rome have under consideration the acts of the Process of Beatification.

Berqer. Lehrn und Wirken (New York. 1883), tr. Grimm (New York. 1884)- Maonier, Short Life (St. Louis, 1897): Clarke, lAtes of Deceased Uishops in V. S.. II (New York. 1872), 431 sq.; Sbea. History of the Calholic Church in V. S., IV (New York, 1892). 397 sq.; Funeral Obsequies of Right Rev. John N. Neunmnn (Philadelphia. 1860); Ate Maria. XXX, 181; Berichte der Lco- poldinm Sliflung, XXV, 33 ; Metropolitan, I-VI ; New York Free- man's Journal (7 Aug., 1852); Pittsburg Catholic. IX, 245; XVI, 264; Catholic Herald. XX, XXVI; Calholic Mirror. I, X; The Catholic Church in the U. S. A.. 1 (New York, 1908). 236-37; Amer. Eccl. Reriew. XVI, 393 sq.. XXIII, 315 sq.. XXXIII, 182 BQ. (an unpublished letter and facsimile).

Joseph Wissel.

Neumayr, Franz, preacher, writer on theological, controversial and a-scetical subjects, and author of many dramas on sacred themes in Latin, b. at Munich, 17 January-, 1697; d. at Augsburg, 1 May, 176.5. He entered the Society of Jesus 3 October, 1712, and after his studies in the Society, taught rhetoric and belles let t res for ten years. He then for two years preached on the missions, when he was made director of the celebrated Latin soflality at Munich, a post which he fille<l with great credit for eleven years. From 1752 to 17f)3 he i)reached at the cathedral of Augsburg with ex1raf)r(linar>' success. His controversial sermons, directed in a great part against the false teachings of the Lutherans, and in piirticular against the apostate monk Rothfischer, and Chladonium, were of a solidity of argument that baffled the efforts of his adversaries. Father NeumajT produced a surprising number of volumes: Latin plays for the use of his Latin sodality, which periodically staged such productions for the pleasure and edification of the literary men of Munich; sermons which he had delivered in the pulpit of Augsburg cathedral; works on asceticism, treatises on Rhetoric and Poetry, and some essays on moral theology' 'n defence of the Jesuit system. Some of his Latin plays were republished in his two collections "Theatrum Asceticum" and "Theatrum Politicum". "Thoatrum Asceticum, sive Meditationes Sacra; in Theatro Congregationis Latina de B. V. Maria;, ab Angelo Salutata; exhibitae Monachi verno jejuni! tempore ab anno 17.39 usque ad annum 1747", 871 pp., Ingol8ta<lt and Augsburg, 1747 (5 edition.s), contains dramatic renderings of such subjects as the conversion of St. Augustine, devotion to the B. V. Man,', the evil of sin, the fear of God, Divine Mercy and Love. "Theatrum PoUticum sive Tr,'ig(edi;e afl commenda- tionem Virtutis et Vitioruiii detest;itionem, etc.", Augsburg and Ingol.stadt, 1760, 518 pp., contains episodes from the lives of Eutropius, Papinianus, Ana- Btasius, Dicorus, Tobias, and Sara, etc. One amusing title which occurs is "Processus jucidialis contra furea

temporis". These pl.ays, besides numerous others, were published ;dso in 8ep;ir:ite booklets. On his ascetical writings probably the most f:imous ;>nd most valuable is the excellent little book "Idea Theologiae Ascetics, Scientiam Sanctorum exhibens", a posthu- mous work first published in Rome by Alexander Monaldi in 1839. It has gone through five editions in Latin and has been translated into various lan- guages. The English edition bears the title: "The Science of the Spiritual Life." He wrote also several works in defence of Probabilism. Of his literary treatises the "Idea Rhetorices" deals with the pre- cepts and use of Rhetoric; "Idea Poesis" is a similar volume on poetry and in the title he tells us the uses of the art, "Ad Ingeniorum Culturam, Animorum Oblec- tationem ac Morum Doetrinam" — ends which he had very well kept in mind in his own dramatic works. A tribute to Father Neumayr on the occasion of his jubilee in religion styles him: "The Champion of FVith and Good Morals, a Follower and Rival of the great Paul, the Hammer of the Heretics, Physician of Sinners and Oracle of the Just!" His works, as enumerated in Sommervogel, number 112 books and pamphlets.

Sommervogel, Bibliothkque de la Compagnie de Jesus. V, new edition; de Backer. Bibliothique des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jisus; Kneller in Kirchenlex.. a. v.

Edward F. Garesche.

Neusohl, Diocese of (Hung. Be.szterczebanya; Lat. Neo.soliensis), founded in 1776 by Maria Theresa. Cardinal Peter Pazmdny had already con- templated founding four new sees in order to relieve the Archdiocese of Gran; one of these was Neusohl, but this project was dropped in 1636. Instead of four sees, four Jesuit colleges were established in Kassa, Neusohl, Kossy, and Safron. After the suppression of the Jesuit Order the project of the new diocese was again taken up. On 7 December, 1775, Maria Theresa informed the cathedral chapter of Gran that it had been decided to establish a new see, and asked the chapter to state what revenues would be assigned to it. On 11 January, 1776, the new diocese was founded by royal decision, and on 13 March, the papal decree was made public. Baron FVanz Berchtokl was named the first bishop (1776-93), and in 1778-85 held the first canonical visitation. His efforts to benefit the diocese materially were unsuccessful, and the great fire of 17S2, which destroyed the episcopal resi- dence, had such a bad effect upon the see, that Joseph II contemplated giving it up, and planned the trans- fer of Berchtold to the See of Gran, but the bishop op- posed the plan, as well as that of the union of the dio- cese with that of SzcSkes or Roszsny6. The seminary, lyceum and the four archdeaneries were founded in the time of Bishop Anton Mackay (1818-23). A dioc- esan synod was held at Neu.sohl 21 November, 1821, where the diocesan constitution was drawn up, which is valid to this day. Bishop Joseph Rudnyciuszky (1844-50) was persecuted by the Austrian Govern- ment on account of his political views, and on 20 Au- gust, 1846, was arrested and sentenced to six years' im- prisonment, and deprived of his episcopal honours. He retracted in 1850, whereupon he was released from prison. Among the more recent bishops Arnold Tpolzi was distinguished. The present bishop is Wol- fang Radnoi. Since 1835 the cathedral chapter pos- sesses its own insignia, and is composed of six mem- bers; there are also six titular canons. The diocese has a provost, 112 parishes, and 371 chapels; there are 108 priests and 49 clerics, 2 monasteries and 2 nunner- ies. In 1902 the Catholic population numbered in all 223,779 souls.

Das Katolische Ungam {Catholic Hungary) (Budapest, 1801) ; .Hchematismus dicecesis Neosoliensis pro anno 1903.


Neutra (Nitria; Nyitba), Diocese op (Nitrien- sis) , in Western Hungary, a suffragan of Gran. The