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adilross<?9 n cc9(livinit(s" (Paris, 1S47); (3) his trana- lation of the Indian drama base<l on tho story of the epic hero Hania, "Le denouement de I'histoire de Riuna. Oultara-Rama-Cliarita, drame de Bhavab- houli, traduit du Sanskrit" (Mnissels, ISSO); (4) his collection of essays on tlie Vedanta philosojiliy and the epic and dramatic poetry of India, published under the title "Epoques litt6raires de I'lnde" (Brussels, 1883).

N^ve was also learned in the Armenian language and literature. A number of valuable translations ami studies based on Armenian texts came from his pen. Among these may be mentioned: (1) the Ar- menian story of tho Tatar invasion, "Expos6 des guerres de Tamcrlan et dc Schah-Hokh dans I'Asie oc- cidcntale, d'apres le chronique armiSnienne in^dite de Thomas de Mcdzoph", pufjlished in "Mdmoircs do I'Acad^mie Uoyalo de Belgiquo" (ISOl); (2) the Ar- menian account of the exploits of God- frey do Bouillon, " Les chefs beiges dc la premiere croisado d'apres los historieiis armif'niens" (Brus- sels, 18.59); (3) the valuable collection of studies on early Christian Armenian prayers and hymn> entitled "L'Armenii chretienne et sa lil- t6raturo" (Louvain, ISSfi). Among the publicationsof Neve Dcaringoni)hiIo!ogy, a place of honour should bo given to his account of the learned men who in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- turies laboured for the upbuilding of the University of Louvain, "La re- naissance des lettres et I'essor dc I'erudition an- cienne en Belgique".

>e de VAcademie Royale de Belgique 1 Annuaire de V University de Louvain suppl. of Journal de Bruxelles (Aug.,

LAMr. Nive in Ann (1893); Lefebvbk, Nil (1894); WiLLEMa, Nive 1892).

Charles F. Aiken.

Nevers, of (Nivernum), includes the Department of Ni6vre, in France. Suppressed by the Concordat of 1801 and united to the See of Autun, it was re-established in 1823 as suffragan of Sens and took over a part of the former Diocese of Autun and a part of the former Diocese of Auxerre (see Sens) . The "Gallia Christiana" mentionsas first Bishop of Nevers St. Eladius, restored to health in the reign of Clovis by St. Severinus, Abbot of St. Maurice. According to Duchesne the first authentic bishop is Tauricanus, present at the Council of Epaon in .517. A number of former bishops of Xevers are venerated as saints: St. Arey (Ari^ius) 549-,')2); St._ Agricola (.580-94); St. Jerome (800-16) who rebuilt in lionour of the martyrs Quiricus and Julitta, the c.athedral until then dedi- cated to Sts. Gervasiiis and Protasius. It is possible that in the seventh centurj' three other saints occu- pied the See of Nevers: St. Die (Deodatus), the same perhaps who died a hermit in the Vosgcs; St. Nectarius and St. Ilier (Ithcriu.s). The following bishops of NeviTs were notable: the future cardinal Pierre I Ber- trandi (1320-22; who, in 1329-30, defended ecclesias- tical immunities against the barons in tho celebrated conferences of Paris and Vincennes presided over by Philip VI; Charles de Bourbon (1.540-47) subse- quently cardinal and whom the Leaguers wished to

miike King of Franco under tho name of Charles X; Spifame (154S-.58) who became a Calvinist in L5.59, and was afterwards accused of forgery and beheaded at Geneva in 1.5.5(); tho polemist Sorbin de Ste-l'oi (1.578-l()0(j) a voluminous writer. Among the .saints of this must be mentioned: Sts. Paul, priest; lY-reux and Pelerin, martyrs between 272 .and 303; St. Parozc (Patritius), Abbot of Nevers in the sixth cen- tury; the hermit St. Franchy (Francova'cus); the priest St. Vincent of Magny in the ninth century; Blessed Nicholas Applaine, canon of the collegiate church of Premery (fifteenth century) whose cassock Louis XI claimed as a relic. Claude Fauchet, consti- tutional Bishop of Calvados during the Revolution, was a native of tho diocese.

In 1 KiS, William IV, Count of Nevers, willed to the Bishop of Bethlehem in Palestine the small town of Pantenor near Clamecy, also the hospital at Clamecy founded by his father William III in 1147. In 1223, owing to the incur- sions of the Mussul- mans in Palestine, the Bishop of Bethle- hem settled at Clam- ecy, and exercised jurisdiction over the hospital and the fau- bourg of Pantenor; his successors were chosen by the counts, later by the dukes of Nevers, with the approval of the pope and the king. In 1413 Charles VI tried to obtain for the titular bishops of Bethlehem the privileges enjoyed by the other bishops of the realm, but the PVench clergy were opposed to this and the titular of Bethlehem was always considered a bishop in ■pariibus infidelium. The assembly of the clergy of PVance in 1635 granted the bishops of Bethlehem an annual pension. Christopher d'Aufhier of Sisgau, founder of the Missionary Priests of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament and celebrated for his ser- mons to the galley-slaves of Marseilles was Bishop of Bethlehem 1651-63. The Abbey of La Charit(5 sur Loire, founded in 10.56, and known as the "eldest daughter" of Cluny, was inaugurated in 1106 by Pas- cal II ; the celebrated Suger, then a simple cleric, has left an account of the ceremony. The Benedictine Abbey of Corbigny, founded under Charlemagne was occupied by the Huguenots in 15C3, as a basis of opera- tions. Bernadette Soubirous (see Lourde.s, Notre- Dame de) died in the Visitandine Convent of Nevers, 12 December, 1878. The chief places of pilgrimage in the diocese are: Notre Dame de Piti6 at St. Martin d'Heuille, dating from the fourteenth century; Notre Dame de Fauboulvin at Corancy, dating from 1590; Notre Dame du Morvan at Dun-sur-Grand Ry, dating from 1876. Prior to the enforcement of the law of 1901, the Diocese of Nevers counted Marists, Oblatos of Mary Immaculate, Oratorians, and several orders of teaching brothers. Among the congrega- tions for women which originated in the diocese must be mentioned: the Ursuline nuns, a teaching order founded in 1622 at Nevers by the Duke of Gonzaga and tho Nevers aldermen; the Hospitallers, founded in 1639 at La Charit6-sur-Loire by Sister M^dard- Varlet; the great congregation of Sisters of Charity and Christian Instruction, founded in 1680, with mother-house at Nevers. At the beginning of the