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twentieth century the religious congregations of the diocese had charge of 22 day nurseries, 5 orphanages for girls, 2 sewing rooms, 18 hospitals or asylums, 1 house of retreat, 1 home for incurables, 1 insane asy- lum, 2 religious houses for the care of the sick in their own homes. In 1908 the Diocese of Nevers had 313,- 972 inhabitants, 95 parishes, and 272 succursal par- ishes.

Gallia Chrisliana, XII. nom (1770), 625-6.5; Instrumenta, 297- 358; Duchesne, Fasles Episcopaux, II, 475; Fisquet, France pon- tificate, Nevers (Paria, 1S66) : Poussereau, Hisloire des comics et des dues de Nevers (Paris, 1897) ; de Sodltrait. Armorial de Nevers (Paris, 1852) ; Chosnieb, Hagiologie Niternaise (Nevers, 1858) ; Idem, Monographic de la cathedrale de Nevers, suivie de Vhisloire des evSques de Nevers (Paris, 1854),

Georges Gotau.

Neville, Edmund (alias Sales), a Jesuit, b. at Hopcut, Lancashire, 160.5; d. in England, IS July, 1847. Educated at St. Omer, he entered the Eng- lish College, Rome, 29 June, 1621, where he dis- tinguished himself in philosophy. He joined the Jesuits, 24 May, 1626; was stationed at Ghent, 16.36, and sent on the London mission, 1637. He was pro- fessed, 3 August, 1640; served in the Oxford district, 1642, and in South Wales, 1645. Being a suspected priest he was seized under the Commonwealth but soon released. He wrote the "Palm of Christian Fortitude" (St. Omer, 1630), an account of the Jap- anese persecutions; a "Life of St. Augustine" and "Second Thoughts" both unprinted. (2) His uncle Edmund Neville (alias Elijah Nelson), probably the son of Sir John Neville of Leversedge, b. in York- shire about 1563; d. 1648, his death hastened by the treatment he received in prison. Ordained for the Eng- lish mission, 12 April, 1608, he entered the Society, 1609. He is considered to have been the dejure seventh Earl of Northumberland. (3) Many members of the Scarisbrick family of Scarisbrick Hall, near Ormskirk, became Jesuits during the penal times and assumed the alias "Neville". Among them were Edward Scarisbrick (Neville), b. 1639. Educated at St. Omer, he entered the Society at Wat ten, 7 Septem- ber, 1660, and was stationed at Liege, 1671, and St. Omer, 1675. Sent to England, he was one of Oates's intended victims. James II appointed him royal chaplain. He was instructor of the Jesuit tertians at Ghent, 1693. He returned to Lancashire, where he died, 19 February, 1708-9. He wrote "Life of Lady Warner" (St. Omer, 1691); "Catholick Loy- alty" (London, 1688); "Rules and Instructions for the Sodality of the Immaculate Conception", etc. (4) Edward Neville (Scarisbrick), b. 1663; d. 15 November, 1735. He became a Jesuit, 1682; served on the Derbyshire mission, 1701, and after 1728 at Bushey Hall, Watford, Herts. (5) Edward Neville (Scarisbrick), b. 1698; d. 7 July, 1778. He entered the Society, 7 September, 1728. Superior of the Derbyshire mission in 1764, he laboured also in Lan- cashire. (0) Sir Edward Neville, son of Baron Bergavenny, a courtier of Henry VIII, took part in the war in France, and wa? made the king's standard bearer, 1531. He married Eleanor, daughter of Lord Windsor. Arrested 3 November, 1538, on the charge of conspiracy with the brother of Cardinal Pole, he was sent to the Tower, tried at Westminster, and be- headed for the faith, 8 December.

De Backer, Bibl. des icrivains de la Comp. de Jesus, II (1521); FohBT, Records o/lhe English Province of the S.J. (London, 1879- 80), V, 347. 350-1; VI, 296, 406; VII, 686; Oliver, Collectanea S.J., 148; Camm, Lives of the English Martyrs, I (London, 1904), 517 sqq.

A. A. MacEblean.

New Abbey. — The Abbey of Sweetheart,, named New Abbey Pow, or New Abbey, in order to distin- guish it from Dundrennan in the same county, is situ- ated near the River Pow, in the parish of Loch Ken- derloch, Kirkcudbrightshire, Diocese of Galloway, about eight miles from the town of Dumfries, Scot-

land. The title of Abbey of Sweetheart was given by the foundress of the abbey. Lady Devorgilla, daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway, who erected the monastery in order to keep in it a casket of ivory and silver, in which was embalmed the heart of her husband. King John de Baliol. Sweetheart is the last in order of the Cistercian abbeys in Scotland. It was begun in 1275, being a daughter of Dundrennan, of the lineage of Clairvaux. Henry, the first abbot, built a magnificent church in the early English style. It measured 203 feet in length, with a central tower 92 feet high; it had a nave with aisles, transepts with chapels on their eastern sides, and a choir without aisles. The monastic buildings were in proportion, and were surrounded with a massive granite enclosing wall, from eight to ten feet high, large portions of which still remain. Very little is known of the old history of Sweetheart, except that tlie Maxwells, lords of Kirkconnel, whose castle was near by, and who were descendants of the Maxwell kings, were great benefactors of the place. The most celebrated supe- rior of the abbey was Abbot Gilbert Broun, the last of the line. He continued to uphold the Catholic faith long after the Reformation, and was a powerful opponent of Protestantism. He was denounced sev- eral times on the charge of enticing to "papistrie" from 1578 to 1005; he was seized by his enemies in 1605 in spite of the resistance of the whole country- side, taken prisoner, and conveyed to Edinburgh, whence he was banished. He then became rector of the Scots College, Paris, where he died in 1612 at the age of eighty-four. The possessions of Sweetheart Abbey passed into the hands of Sir John Spottiswoode in 1624, and with them the title of Lord of New Ab- bey. The monastery soon became a mere quarry for those who wanted ready-cut material for building. The chapter, with the remains of the library over it, and a part of the church, are all that remain to-day.

Henriquez, Menologinm Cisterciense (Antwerp, 1630); Jonge- LiNUs, Notilia Abbaiitirum Ord. Cisterciensis (Cologne, 1640); Janauschek, Originum Cisterciensium tomus, I (Vienna, 1877); Barrett, The Hcottish Cistercians (Edinburgh) ; Reqis, S. M. de Neubotle; New Statistical Account of .Scotland.

Edmond M. Obrecht.

Newark, Diocese of (Novarcensis), created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, Bergen, Essex, Union, Morris, and Sussex counties in the State of New Jersey, U. S. A., an area of 1699 square miles. The diocese originally included the whole State, but the fourteen other counties were taken (15 July, 1881) to form the Diocese of Trenton. As early as 1672 the records show that there were Catholics at Woodbridge and at Elizabethtown, the capital of East Jersey, and the Jesuit Fathers Harvey and Gage, Governor Dongan's chaplains in New York, visited them. Other priests came at a later period. Several of these pioneers were Als:itians who had come over with Carteret to engage in tlie sall-inaking in- dustry. William Douglass, elected from Bergen, was excluded from the first General Asseniljly Ik'IiI at- Ehz- abethtown, 26 May, 1668, because he was a Catholic. Two years later he was arrested and b:uiishcd to New England as a "troublesome person". The whole at- mosphere of the colony was intensely anti-Catholic. The law of 1698 granted religious toleration in East Jer- sey, but "provided that this slit.ulil iKit extend to any of the Romish religion t lie right (oexeKi-e I heir manner of worship contrary to the laws iuu\ st:itutes of Eng- land". In West Jer-sey, the pioneers were Quakers and more tolerant. It is claimed that John Tathain, appointed Governor of West Jersey in 1690, and the founder of its great pottery industry, was really an English C.-itholic whose name was John Gray. Father Robert Harding and Father Ferdinand Farmer (Stein- meyer) from the Jesuit community in Philadelphia, made long tours across the State in the eighteenth century ministering to the scattered groups of Oath.-